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action conceptaction concept. Wir lieben Film und wir lieben Stunts ! Daher produzieren wir nationale und internationale Actionmovies und -serien: Action made in. action concept gehört zu den führenden unabhängigen Filmproduzenten in Deutschland. Die Primetime-Formate der in Hürth bei Köln ansässigen Filmproduktion. Die action concept Film- und Stuntproduktion GmbH ist ein deutsches Filmproduktionsunternehmen für Actionformate mit Sitz in Hürth bei Köln.
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Several different definitions of "the action" are in common use in physics. However, when the action pertains to fields , it may be integrated over spatial variables as well.
In some cases, the action is integrated along the path followed by the physical system. The action is typically represented as an integral over time, taken along the path of the system between the initial time and the final time of the development of the system: .
For the action integral to be well-defined, the trajectory has to be bounded in time and space. In classical physics , the term "action" has a number of meanings.
This principle results in the equations of motion in Lagrangian mechanics. Here the input function is the path followed by the physical system without regard to its parameterization by time.
For example, the path of a planetary orbit is an ellipse, and the path of a particle in a uniform gravitational field is a parabola; in both cases, the path does not depend on how fast the particle traverses the path.
Hamilton's principal function is defined by the Hamilton—Jacobi equations HJE , another alternative formulation of classical mechanics.
In other words, the action function S is the indefinite integral of the Lagrangian with respect to time. When the total energy E is conserved, the Hamilton—Jacobi equation can be solved with the additive separation of variables :.
The physical significance of this function is understood by taking its total time derivative. The Hamilton—Jacobi equations are often solved by additive separability; in some cases, the individual terms of the solution, e.
This is a single variable J k in the action-angle coordinates , defined by integrating a single generalized momentum around a closed path in phase space , corresponding to rotating or oscillating motion:.
The variable J k is called the "action" of the generalized coordinate q k ; the corresponding canonical variable conjugate to J k is its "angle" w k , for reasons described more fully under action-angle coordinates.
The integration is only over a single variable q k and, therefore, unlike the integrated dot product in the abbreviated action integral above.
The J k variable equals the change in S k q k as q k is varied around the closed path. For several physical systems of interest, J k is either a constant or varies very slowly; hence, the variable J k is often used in perturbation calculations and in determining adiabatic invariants.
See tautological one-form. In Lagrangian mechanics, the requirement that the action integral be stationary under small perturbations is equivalent to a set of differential equations called the Euler—Lagrange equations that may be obtained using the calculus of variations.
The action principle can be extended to obtain the equations of motion for fields, such as the electromagnetic field or gravitational field.
The Einstein equation utilizes the Einstein—Hilbert action as constrained by a variational principle. The trajectory path in spacetime of a body in a gravitational field can be found using the action principle.
For a free falling body, this trajectory is a geodesic. Implications of symmetries in a physical situation can be found with the action principle, together with the Euler—Lagrange equations , which are derived from the action principle.
An example is Noether's theorem , which states that to every continuous symmetry in a physical situation there corresponds a conservation law and conversely.
This deep connection requires that the action principle be assumed. In quantum mechanics, the system does not follow a single path whose action is stationary, but the behavior of the system depends on all permitted paths and the value of their action.
The action corresponding to the various paths is used to calculate the path integral , that gives the probability amplitudes of the various outcomes.
Although equivalent in classical mechanics with Newton's laws , the action principle is better suited for generalizations and plays an important role in modern physics.
Indeed, this principle is one of the great generalizations in physical science. It is best understood within quantum mechanics, particularly in Richard Feynman 's path integral formulation , where it arises out of destructive interference of quantum amplitudes.
Maxwell's equations can also be derived as conditions of stationary action. If instead, the particle is parametrized by the coordinate time t of the particle and the coordinate time ranges from t 1 to t 2 , then the action becomes.
The action principle can be generalized still further. For example, the action need not be an integral, because nonlocal actions are possible.
The configuration space need not even be a functional space , given certain features such as noncommutative geometry. However, a physical basis for these mathematical extensions remains to be established experimentally.
For an annotated bibliography, see Edwin F. Taylor who lists , among other things, the following books. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Not to be confused with Action at a distance. So what experiments lend validity to this model? Here are a few interesting ones in order of the complexity of my explanation :.
The goal-oriented rat experiment. Rat s are famous for their maze -solving experiments. They can learn to solve mazes given a cheesy incentive and the mazes and rats can be relatively easily "adjusted" to see how learning works.
But do rats memorize a sequence of specific actions requires to complete their maze, or do they remember goals? Experiments showed that rats are goal-oriented and do not need to relearn a maze, for example, when a walkable path became only crossable by swimming.
In other words, a breakdown in a key feature of the maze if rats were action-oriented no longer being able to walk a route did not befuddle the rats.
This suggested that rats learn mazes by goals or action-effects. After turning a corner, instead of thinking "I remember walking 10 little rat paces," the rat thinks "I remember needing to get to that cheese around the corner.
The not-so skilled typist experiment. According to the model, actions are automatically associated with their action-effect features. But contrary to the model, one would think that skilled typists, for example, should be able to type F or J on command without considering what side of the keyboard the letter is on.
The action-effect of typing F or J and the action of pressing the left or right index finger should be directly linked because the action is so routine and simple.
In E2 speak, F should be hardlink ed to pressing the left index finger. But the action-concept model predicts that, when learning typing and typing normally, a feature such as on what side of the keyboard a letter appears is automatically associated with the action of pressing that letter, not just what finger is used to type the letter.
To test this, subjects were asked to type F 's and J 's which would appear on the left- or right-hand side of the screen in an attempt to activate an action-effect feature that would either be consistent or inconsistent with the desired action.
If the model was wrong, skilled typists would type the letters just as fast regardless of what side of the screen prompts them to type the letter.
If the model was right, skilled typists perform worse if the letter appeared on the side of the screen opposite to the hand used to type them.
Interestingly, skilled typists were slower and less accurate at typing F 's and J 's when they appeared on the side of the screen opposite to the hand used to type them.
The results suggests that typists have to suppress an action-effect feature that the letter is on a particular side in order to appropriately execute the typing action.
The free acquistion, forced action tests. This experiment directly tested the two stages of the Action-Concept model. In the first part of the experiment, subjects were asked to randomly press the right or left keys when they were prompted by a white rectangle.
They were informed that they would hear a tone after pressing each key, but that this was irrelevant to the test and should be ignored.
One half of the subjects would hear a low tone after pressing the left key, and a high tone after pressing the right key map A and the other half would hear the opposite key-tone mapping map B.
They performed boring! In the second part of the experiment, subjects were instructed to respond to tones as instructed.
The subjects, however, were divided into two groups: the reversal and the non-reversal group, each consisting of equal numbers of map A and map B subjects.
In the non-reversal group, subjects were asked to respond to a tone with the key consistent with their practiced mapping. For example, map A subjects were asked to press the left key after a low tone and the right key after a high tone.
In the reversal group, subjects were asked to respond to a tone with the opposite key. For example, map A subjects were asked to press the left key after a high tone and the right key after a low tone.
The nonreversal group responded faster with less errors in the test phase, as expected. It makes sense that they had associated the keys with the same tones that were used in the test phase.
However, the experiment had another aspect. In one series of test phases, after hearing the prompt tone and pressing the key, the subjects would hear the practiced key tone.
For example, a reversal map A subject would hear a high tone, press the left key as instructed, then hear the low tone due to pressing left.
This way they could not ignore the action-effect. In another series, the subjects would not hear the practiced tone after each key press.
This way they had a chance of "practicing out" the previously acquired action-effect. Non-reversal subjects always responded in the test phase within about ms, with or without the after-tone.
With the after tone, reversal subjects responded within about ms without much improvement over time.
Without the inconsistent after-tone, however, reversal subjects quickly started responding within about ms. The result of the experiment indicated not only that the unconscious acquisition of action-effects help a subject choose actions as predicted by the action-concept model's bidirectionality, but not by other models , but also that the consistency of a known action-effect has a considerable impact even when the subjects if forced to choose.
The key ideas of the Action-Concept model are that action-effects are automatically associated with actions, the association is bidirectional, and we can plan our actions by activating desired action-effect codes instead of motor codes relying on the birectionality of the mapping.
Action concepts are generated subconsciously: you will associate effects with actions even if you are told not to, and those associations will improve or inhibit your actions in the future see the second experiment.
Furthermore, even given a routine, simple task, action-effects will still be automatically gathered and practice does not erase action-effects features see the first experiment.
Action-effects may be used to plan action in a few ways: to determine if an action is successful - we can compare the observed effect code of an action to the desired action effect code to determine if an action is complete - same as above to plan complex actions - by activating action-effect codes in sequence see the rat experiment.
The great thing about this model, as simplistic as it is, is that it makes sense and a source a great relief for me still allows for free will. Unfortunately, it does nothing to even suggest an explanation for free will--how we might choose action-effects to activate actions.
But isn't free will more wondrous if it can't be explained? It makes sense that a baby looks around randomly without purpose and slowly starts to make more sensical movements as it gains experience.
It makes sense that we cannot perform many tasks well the first time, as simple as they are, because we have not yet acquired experience in executing them.
And it makes sense that rather than consciously planning our muscle movements to type an email, we may instead think of desired action-effects and use the bidirectionality of the action-concept to subconsciously link our action-effects to our muscle movements.
Where I leave you, the reader, stranded is with regards to the moral implications of the Action-Concept model.
If action-effects and actions are automatically linked based on experience, then what if someone's well-meaning action-effects lead to bad actions because of bad experience?
Should a police academy be faulted instead of the police officer for a wrongful shooting? Can video game companies be sued for violence by children supposedly conditioned by those games?
How much weight should we give intentions versus actions if experience rather than thinking has primacy, and our consciousness, for which we are culpable, plans action-effects rather than actions?