Hintergründe des Konflikts. Die in der Sahara lebenden Tuareg verteilen sich auf den. Süden Algeriens, den Süden Libyens, den Niger, Mali und Burkina Faso. Seit dem Militärputsch im März herrscht in Mali Krieg: in der Hauptstadt Bamako lähmt ein politisches und militärisches Machtvakuum eine Befriedung. Der Mali-Konflikt und die UN. Terror- und Rebellengruppen begehren in Mali seit vielen Jahren gegen die Regierung auf. Trotz mehrerer Friedensabkommen.
Innerstaatliche KonflikteDer Mali-Konflikt und die UN. Terror- und Rebellengruppen begehren in Mali seit vielen Jahren gegen die Regierung auf. Trotz mehrerer Friedensabkommen. Konflikt in Mali. Erfahren Sie mehr darüber, was im Moment im Norden Malis passiert. Die anhaltende humanitäre Krisensituation bleibt gefährlich. Nun griff Frankreich militärisch in den Konflikt ein, weitere Länder wollen folgen. Eine Chronologie des Konfliktes. Chronologie des Mali-Konflikts. März .
Konflikt In Mali Navigation menu VideoEinsatz in Mali - Mick Locher erklärt die Lage Der Konflikt in Nordmali ist ein seit andauernder Krieg in Nordmali, an dem seit Januar auch westliche Staaten – insbesondere Frankreich – beteiligt sind. Der Konflikt in Mali ist eine Kombination aus dem Aufbegehren der Tuareg im Norden, einer sozio-ökonomischen Krise und der. Der Konflikt in Nordmali ist ein seit andauernder Krieg in Nordmali, an dem seit Januar auch westliche Staaten – insbesondere Frankreich – beteiligt. Mali: Das Migrationszentrum in Gao als Insel der Ruhe Toumani Touré die Regierung destabilisiert und den Boden für den Konflikt im Norden bereitet.
On 5 February, according to Chadian news stations, 24 Chadian soldiers were killed and 11 were wounded when they were ambushed by jihadists during a patrol north of Kidal.
The information was neither denied nor confirmed by Chadian and Malian authorities. However, the Chadian government did mention that 11 soldiers were injured in a "traffic accident" north of Kidal.
On 8 February, French and Chadian troops announced that they had occupied Tessalit near the Algerian border, the seat of one of the last airports still not controlled by the Malian government and its allies.
Islamist and Tuareg forces were reported to have retreated to the Adrar des Ifoghas , rugged badlands in northeastern Mali.
Knowledge of and control over local sources of water is expected to play a vital role in continuing conflict in that area.
Between 8 and 10 February, MUJAO — who had been harassing government forces from the outskirts since Malian and French forces took the city on 26 January — launched the first two suicide attacks of the war in Gao , resulting in the death of the two bombers and injuring a Malian soldier and a civilian.
Islamist fighters armed with AKs then crossed the Niger River on canoes , took over an abandoned police station and deployed snipers in nearby buildings in anticipation of the government forces' counterattack.
The situation was controlled by pro-government forces after heavy fighting which included an air attack on the police station by French helicopters.
On 19 February, Islamists attacked a French parachute regiment of soldiers supported by a heavy vehicle patrol and Mirage fighter jets.
One French commando, a sergeant, was killed and so were 20 Islamist militants. Gao was attacked a second time on 20 February. Islamists again crossed the Niger and came close to the city hall, possibly with help from locals.
The same day, a car bomb exploded in Kidal , killing two people. On 22 February , 13 Chadian soldiers and 65 Islamists were killed during heavy fighting in the northern mountains.
President Obama announced on 22 February that about American troops had been sent to Niger, which borders Mali, to aid the French in Mali.
The most recent U. Air Force logistics specialists, intelligence analysts and security officers arrived in the capital of Niger on 20 February , bringing the total Americans deployed in Niger to On 24 February 28 Islamists and ten Chadian soldiers were killed while fighting in the Adrar des Ifoghas mountains in Northern Mali.
On 26 February, a car bomb exploded in Kidal targeting a MNLA checkpoint. At least 7 MNLA fighters along with the suicide bomber were killed in the attack.
On 20 March, AQIM claimed to have executed a French hostage in Mali, Phillipe Verdon, who had been kidnapped in On 23 March, Islamist fighters from MUJAO attacked the city of Gao, causing heavy fighting for two hours.
The Malian army eventually repulsed this attack. On 30 March, a suicide bomber detonated his explosives near a Malian army checkpoint in Timbuktu , allowing a group of jihadists to infiltrate by night.
By 1 April, with the help of a French army detachment supported by war jets, the Malian army pushed the jihadists out of the city center.
On 29 April, a French paratrooper was killed by a roadside bomb in Northern Mali, the sixth French soldier to die in the conflict.
Two others were seriously injured. On 28 February, Algerian television informed that Abdelhamid Abou Zeid , one of the three top men of AQIM and deemed responsible of several kidnappings of westerners in the Sahel in the s, had been killed in battle against Franco-Chadian forces in the Tigharghar mountains along with about 40 of his followers, some kilometres away from Aguelhok.
The information was neither confirmed nor denied by the French Army. On 2 March , it was reported that Mokhtar Belmokhtar , mastermind of the In Amenas hostage crisis in which hostages had been taken and 39 Westerners killed at an Algerian oil refinery, had been killed as well.
On 4 March , Al Qaeda's North African branch confirmed the death of Abou Zeid, but denied that Belmokhtar had been killed.
Now that the bulk of the conflict is over and the need for extended military involvement is decreasing, France looks to the UN to take over with the peacekeeping force that had been suggested earlier in the conflict once it was a more stable situation.
On 3 December , the UK government announced an increase in the British Army commitment to MINUSMA, with soldiers principally drawn from the Light Dragoons and the Royal Anglian Regiment operating with 'a highly specialised reconnaissance capability'.
This announcement comes days after a suicide bomber killed four Chadian soldiers in Kidal , where 1, of its soldiers are currently stationed.
A peace deal between the government and Tuareg rebels was signed on 18 June The MNLA ended the ceasefire in September of the same year after government forces opened fire on unarmed protesters.
Following the attack, MNLA vice-president Mahamadou Djeri Maiga remarked: "What happened is a declaration of war.
We will deliver this war. Wherever we find the Malian army we will launch the assault against them. It will be automatic.
The warnings are over. In the first half of , there was an increase in rebel attacks. As of July , northern Mali was largely out of government control.
In July , three British RAF Chinook helicopters were deployed to assist with logistics and troop movement, to reduce the risks of ground transportation.
On 25 January, a source within the Malian Security Forces reported that a French military operation in the Tombouctou Region of northern Mali resulted in the deaths of 11 Muslim fighters.
On 20 February, Germany and France announced the shipment of elements of the Franco-German brigade to Mali to help train Mali troops.
This is the first deployment of EU troops in Africa as an EU contingent. On 13 February, Mali government forces returned to Kidal after six years.
On 6 April, militants attacked a military base in the Gao town of Bamba , killing at least 25 Malian soldiers. On 17 January, a Chadian MINUSMA peacekeeper was killed in an attack on a French-UN camp in Kidal.
The Chadian government described the incident as "discriminatory" and said its soldiers were being used as "shields". On 5 May , a rocket hit a MINUMSA base killing a Liberian soldier and injuring 7 other soldiers, including several Liberians and a Swedish soldier.
On 18 June, Jama'at Nasr al-Islam wal Muslimin Islamists attacked a luxury resort in Bamako killing 5 people, including one Portuguese soldier.
On 26 July , 2 German pilots died in a helicopter-crash. In a surge of attacks during October—November, over Mali soldiers were killed.
The attacks increased political discontent towards the government from the military community. The attacks also increased discontent towards the French peacekeeping forces located in the central part of the country.
In response to the attacks, the military abandoned isolated outposts in the north. In February , HRW documented atrocities against civilians in Central Mali and said that at least civilians were killed, while hundreds were injured from January until November.
The rights organization also cited that it interviewed victims, ethnic communities and security and justice officials.
On April 6, , an attack on a military camp in Mali left at least 23 dead, while several others injured. The Malian News Agency reported that the incident was carried out by unidentified gunmen, who took away the military equipment and also burned the camp.
To date over , have been displaced by this conflict. Following several reports of abuse from both sides, the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court opened a case investigating war crimes in Mali on 16 January This case is the quickest any ICC investigation has begun after foreign military intervention.
In May , Amnesty International released a report stating that the conflict had created Mali's worst human rights situation since The organization stated that fighters with the MNLA and Ansar Dine were "running riot" in Mali's north,  and documented instances of gang rape , extrajudicial executions , and the use of child soldiers by both Tuareg and Islamist groups.
On 3 April , armed groups looted 2, tons of food from United Nations' World Food Programme 's warehouses in Kidal, Gao and Timbuktu, causing the WFP to suspend its food distribution operations in northern Mali.
Ansar el Dine also blocked a humanitarian convoy bringing medical and food aid from reaching Timbuktu on 15 May, objecting to the presence of women in the welcoming committee set up by city residents;  after negotiations, the convoy was released on the following day.
The CNRDR's spokesman Amadou Konare claimed that "women and girls have been kidnapped and raped by the new occupants who are laying down their own law.
On 29 July , a couple was stoned to death by Islamists in Aguelhok for having children outside of marriage. An official reported that many people left the town for Algeria following the incident.
During the conflict, Islamists also damaged or destroyed a number of historical sites on the grounds that they said were idolatrous, particularly in Timbuktu, a UNESCO World Heritage site.
On 4 May , Ansar Dine members reportedly burned the tomb of a Sufi saint. On 28 January , as French-led Malian troops captured the airport of the world heritage town of Timbuktu, the Ahmed Baba Institute , host of priceless ancient manuscripts , was razed by fleeing Islamists.
The Tuaregs and Arabs who lived in Bamako and elsewhere in southern Mali were subjects of a rash of ethnic attacks by black Malians as opposed to Mediterranean Arabs and racially mixed Tuaregs , despite many of them being hostile to Azawad separatism as well as the Islamists.
In fact, a large part of them actually had only recently arrived to the government-held south, fleeing the violence in the north.
An incident arose on 8 September when a group of Malian soldiers detained 17 unarmed Tablighi preachers from Mauritania in Dogofry , north-east of Diabaly, while en route to a religious conference in Bamako and executed all but one of them without reporting to their own command.
The Malian government expressed its condolences for the event, which Associated Press considered a symptom of the disintegration of discipline and command in the Malian Army as a result of the 21 March Coup.
On 19 January , Human Rights Watch report killings and other human rights abuses committed by the Malian army in the central Malian town of Niono.
Tuaregs and Arabs were especially targeted. On 23 January , BBC reported claims by the International Federation of Human Rights that Malian Army soldiers had carried out summary executions against people suspected of being militant, and with bodies subsequently being hastily buried in makeshift graves and wells.
Some victims were reportedly killed for not having identity documents or for their ethnicity. Reportedly, dozens of ethnic Tuaregs living in Bamako had their homes raided by government troops.
Mali earned the first win in the Africa Cup of Nations football championship on 20 January with a 1—0 win over Niger. After scoring the only goal, Seydou Keita displayed a T-shirt with a peace sign on it.
A ceasefire was agreed upon on 20 February between the Malian government and the northern rebels. The terms of the truce state that both sides agreed to, as the AFP news agency put it, "tackle the causes of lasting tensions in the region.
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Further information: Battle of Gao. Main articles: Operation Serval , African-led International Support Mission to Mali , and EUTM Mali.
See also: Timeline of the Northern Mali conflict. Further information: Battle of Konna. Further information: Battle of Diabaly , Second battle of Gao , 3rd battle of Gao , 4th battle of Gao , Battle of Khalil , Battle of Iminenas , Battle of Tin Keraten , Battle of Timbuktu , 5th Battle of Gao , 2nd Battle of Timbuktu , and Battle of in Arab.
Further information: Battle of Ifoghas , Operation Panther , Battle of Tigharghar , Attack on Kidal , and Battle of Djebok.
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. August See also: Casualty recording.
Further information: International Criminal Court investigation in Mali. Further information: Islamist destruction of Timbuktu heritage sites.
Retrieved 14 January Retrieved 13 January Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 28 January Ghana Business News. Retrieved 18 January Mali conflict: West African troops to arrive 'in days'.
Retrieved 15 January Archived from the original on 21 February Wall Street Journal. Courier Mail. Africa Review.
Archived from the original on 27 January Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 26 July Swedish Armed Forces. Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 18 May UK Government - Ministry of Defence.
Retrieved 19 January Archived from the original on 19 January BBC News. Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 6 March ABC News.
Retrieved 7 February De Standaard in Dutch. National Post. Archived from the original on 24 January Retrieved 6 February Archived from the original on 15 January Politiken , Agence France-Presse.
Archived from the original on 1 February Archived from the original on 29 July Archived from the original on 14 July The Irish Times.
January Archived from the original on 14 February The Telegraph. The Times of India. Live Mint. The Economic Times.
Newstrack India. Voice of America. Archived from the original on 11 February Cuartopoder, ABC, US to provide French air transport in Mali.
It has even been reactivated several times since then, especially when tensions within rival communities re-emerge.
After the creation of the MNLA in , the movement resurfaced and called on Songhay and Fulani military to join in order to counter the Tuareg fighters returning from Libya.
Parallel to Ganda Koy, another self-defence militia was created: the Ganda Iso. From that moment on, tensions between the Tuareg and Ganda Iso increased, leading to multiple battles.
During the crisis, Ganda Koy and Ganda Iso chose to collaborate with the Malian army against the Tuareg, especially in the Gao region.
Since the beginning of the Algiers peace talks in April , Bamako has decided to support the GATIA, a Tuareg militia backed by the Malian army and controlled by General ag Gamou , in order to fight the MNLA.
The history of national and inter-community violence in Mali has accompanied the post-colonial state-building process.
The diversity of the Malian population has been used as a divide-and-rule instrument, first by French colonists and then by post-colonial politicians, in order to assert their authority in the north, but also by the Tuareg noble class to impose its leadership upon the entire community.
All past peace agreements have failed, partly because of this disunity and the difficulty, in that context, of satisfying the interests of all communities which would, in turn, guarantee a post-conflict stability.
Because local interests differed, and were even sometimes incompatible, past agreements have not been able to sustain a viable peace between north and south and within the northern communities.
Excessive militarisation of the problems in the north, the failure to address the economic dimension of the crisis, and discretionary benefits dispensed to a small number of affiliated or friendly clans, have exacerbated tensions.
The extreme fragmentation of community interests, especially in the north, should encourage reflection on i the minimal model for inclusiveness which groups and leaders are most representative among each community in order to enhance the presence of the state across the entire country and ii the common denominator between all groups in terms of grievances and demands.
Economic and political rebellions, nationalistic postures and partial regional mediations have made discontent part of the structure of north-south relations, and eventually led to declining interest in the quite legitimate roots of the crisis.
Regional interference and the regional leadership race between Algeria and Libya have played a part in aggravating the disagreements between Malian communities.
This trend will be dealt with in the next chapter. Executive summary. Conclusions: a way out of recurrent crisis? Chapter 2. PDF Share Twitter Facebook E-mail.
Northern disunity as a main cause of instability? Map 4. Iyad ag Ghali and Mohamed ag Najem, two of the main leaders of the rebellion were fighting for the Libyan Islamic Legion in Lebanon and Chad.
Tensions between the Ifoghas and other groups were mainly due to diverging aspirations. The rebellion split into four groups.
The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Azawad MPLA , the main group active during the rebellion, was reorganised around the Ifogha community and led by Iyad ag Ghali.
Non-Ifoghas Tuareg tribes created the Revolutionary Liberation Army of Azawaf ARLA — mainly composed of Taghat Melett, Idnan and Imghad , the Popular Liberation Front of Azawad FPLA — composed of the Chaman Amas , and the Arab Islamic Front of Azawad FIAA — north-western Malian Arab minority.
Iyad ag Ghali led the Alliance for Democracy and Change ADC with Ibrahim ag Bahanga and Hassan ag Fagaga, who later decided to split and create the North Mali Alliance for Change ATNMC.
For the first time in the history of Tuareg rebellions, suspicions over the involvement of a terrorist group, AQIM, in the fights were mentioned.
The Rassemblement pour le Mali RPM strongly denounced the Algiers agreement, considering it to be a weak political solution to a security problem.
Nobody ever wants to go to war. But is it about that in this case? There are just some responsibilities that need to be assumed and nothing else. We need to deal with problems where they arise.
Political rantings will do us no good. The Kidal area especially benefited from the agreement, notably the Ifoghas tribes, who were over-represented in the monitoring institutions created to implement the agreement.
Other communities of Kidal, such as the Idnan and Taghat Mallet, struggled to reach an understanding of the committees established for the Algiers agreement and were gradually excluded from the process.
For more information on the matter, see: International Crisis Group, op. Rumours of a deal between ATT and Iyad ag Ghali grew.
ATT was accused of voluntarily withdrawing the military from the Tin-Zaouatene region Algerian border in order to facilitate cross-border trafficking.
For instance, he negotiated the release of the 32 Europeans kidnapped by a GSPC katiba in See: Morgan, A. Ibrahim ag Bahanga, one of the leaders of the ATNMC, decided to resume the fight against the Malian government after the conclusion of the Algiers agreement.
The proximity of his group to the Nigerien rebel Movement for Justice MNJ worried Bamako and triggered the creation of the community militias.
The involvement of Nigerien representatives needs to be understood with regards to the ATNMC links with the MNJ, a group that rebelled against the Niger government.
Boas, M. To a certain extent, MUJAO acted in the same way in the Gao region. Le Roy, E. Coquery-Vidrovitch, C.
For a general discussion of Tuareg and Arab communities in northern Mali, see the well-documented US cables Bamako 6 March and Bamako 1 June Iyad ag Ghali is part of the ruling Ifoghas clan of the Kel Ireyakkan, while the Intallah belongs to the Ifoghas Kel Affelah group.
Former rebel leader Ibrahim ag Bahanga, also an Ifoghas, belonged to the Ifergoumessen group. Among the Idnan, influent members are Mohamed ag Erlaf former coordinator of the PSPSDN and current Minister for Environment , Nina Walet Intallou influential political leader of the MNLA and Colonel Mohamed ag Najim, the military leader of the MNLA.
The Imghad are a Tuareg clan now opposed to the Ifoghas. General El Hadj Gamou is one of the most influential members of this community.
International Crisis Group, July , op. Until his death in military combat in December , Ahmed el Tilemsi led the group and was thought to be responsible for the kidnapping in of Canadian Ambassador Robert Fowler.
Sonni Ali was one of the Songhay princes, 18th leader of the dynasty. The origins of the Fulani are highly disputed, some believing that they are of North African or Arabic origin, others arguing that they descend from nomads from both North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa.
Still, more groups formed in rebellion to the state. By May of , the internal divisions between the MPA and ARLA led to the creation of the Democratic Alliance for Change ADC , which then waged an attack on another rebel group known as the GSPC or Algerian Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat Lecocq and Klute The growing number of insurgent groups is directly relatable to the immediate cause of the beginning of the intrastate conflict in The National Movement of Azawad formed in October of as a political movement that would demand autonomy in Mali through politics.
After the demands of the movement were ignored, more people joined the MNA and formed MNLA or the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad. Rather than requesting political autonomy and equity the way MNA had, MNLA declared that its purpose was to make Azawad an independent state.
Lecocq and Klute In January of , the MNLA launched an attack in Menaka on a state military brigade Chauzal and van Damme If the Malian government were a strong central authority, it would have been better able to counteract insurgency at its beginning or at least dismantle some of the rebellion.
The problem of disproportionate development highlights the economic crisis as a cause of political strife as well as what I will later show to be a peacebuilding challenge.
Finally, the Malian government has exacerbated the economic conditions in the country due to the lack of investment in the domestic economy.
Most of the northern population in the country are Tuareg and Arabs, and their contribution to the economy is driven by livestock and agriculture as well as tourism, which makes up approximately 43 percent of the Gross Domestic Product GDP.
Because tourism has significantly decreased, the income from these areas has declined, leaving more than 8, people without a job by the end of Chauzal and van Damme The Malian government is not investing in home-grown agricultural products, which has upset many Tuareg because they struggle to provide for their families.
One man complained of being fed food from other nations when there is food on the farms in Mali, but they cannot sell it because of the government Return to Bamako It is also true that the south is primarily dependent on gold export and cotton Chauzal and van Damme The Malian government then, by not investing in agricultural production in Mali, effectively stifles the economy of the north, which is primarily Tuareg and Arab.
Furthermore, the prohibition of tourism by the Malian government also helped engineer an economic crisis in the north Chauzal and van Consequently, the financial situation in Mali angers many Tuareg and Arabs and further encourages them to join the any one of the growing number of anti-state militant groups.
Such mobilization is a danger to the Malian government because it causes a decrease in loyalty to the state and makes the northerners more susceptible to receiving help from countries like Libya and Algeria Chauzal and van Damme According to John Carson, the Assistant Secretary for African Affairs in the U.
Department of State, peacebuilding in Mali has been met with four initial obstacles, including the need to restore democracy, successfully handling rebellion groups, countering extranational terrorism in the north, and mitigating the humanitarian crisis that is directly connected to the engineered economic crisis in Mali Assessing Developments in Mali In this section, I will focus on international military intervention has addressed these problems through Operation Serval and Barkhane, in accordance with UN resolution Tramond and Seigneur The humanitarian crisis has been a significant challenge to peacebuilding in Mali.
While it is true that the former Malian government created some of the crisis, it is also environmental. The s and s brought with them a severe drought that made growing crops difficult and created a food crisis.
As a region whose economy is heavily dependent on livestock and agriculture, conditions were worse for northerners in Mali Chauzal and van Damme This crisis motivated people in the north to migrate to other nations where economic and living conditions might be better, but many soon returned because they were forced out due to worsening conditions in those other countries Hagberg and Körling Moreover, reports from the UN in say that there were nearly , displaced people in Mali— not including the more than , that have fled Mali to countries like Burkina Faso, Mauritania, and Niger.
Still worse, at least 4. By both the number of displaced people internally and externally had risen substantially from about , to , Moseley Furthermore, the presence of terrorist groups and rebel groups in Mali prompted the nation to ask the United Nations for help stabilizing politics and security in the country.
The attack of the MNLA in per the international consensus to intervene in Mali, the African Union and the United Nations launched a military intervention in Mali in response to the humanitarian crisis and security crisis the nation is facing.
Two military operations have been launched by France and the African Union, which can be called Operations Serval and Barkhane.
Operation Barkhane is a combination of Operations Serval and the African-led military intervention based in Chad Bere The operation in Serval lasted for seven months and involved over 4, soldiers being deployed.
The purpose of this mission was to:. Operation Serval was a vital mission because, as stated by Tramond and Seigneur, it succeeded in recapturing the northern towns that were most vital to Malian political power and governance.
Furthermore, the power regimes of terrorist groups deteriorated due to losses in battle Tramond and Seigneur Following the international military intervention, Mali was able to hold elections in both and While he does acknowledge that there have been positive changes in Mali because of those interventions, he points to the many factors concerning human rights, the security sector, and the humanitarian crisis that still exist.
Terrorist attacks are ongoing; many Malians are still displaced, lack of resources provided by humanitarian agencies and discontent with the lack of fundamental social services remain Bere To answer the question of whether policies have been successful, it is imperative that we consider the problems that remain in Mali today and the implications of categorizing strategies as a success at this stage in conflict resolution.Fernsehprogramm Heite fact, a large part of them actually had only recently arrived to the Nankendorf Lichterfest south, fleeing the violence in the north. Operation Serval was a vital mission because, as stated by Tramond and Seigneur, it succeeded in recapturing the northern towns that were most vital to Malian political Kinoprogramm Ratingen and governance. The second question asks what the challenges to building a durable peace in Mali are? Retrieved 18 January Shaun Das Schaf Schweine Es gibt viele Hypothesen, noch mehr Wort Guru 77, keine Beweise. Die historische Stadt Timbuktu mit ihren Lehmmoscheen ist eine Stätte des UNESCO-Welterbe von hoher kultureller Instant Video App Tablet, jedoch ist das sorgfältig bewahrte Erbe wegen des anhaltenden Konfliktes in Mali in Gefahr geraten. Hier spielen auch Ressourcen eine Rolle.