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Marlon Brando Young

Marlon Brando and Elizabeth Taylor on location during filming of movie "​Reflections in a Golden Eye", photo by Loomis Dean, Italy, Explore skorver1's. Marlon Brando The Young Lions Filmfoto 11 x Alle Produkte. Marlon Brando, Hollywood Stars, Old Hollywood, Dolores Costello, Unknown Photographer - Young Marlon Brando - May 06, | Vintage Gravures in FL.

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Scene from A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)

In his documentary, Listen To Me Marlon , he said before that actors were like breakfast cereals, meaning they were predictable. Critics would later say this was Brando being difficult, but actors who worked opposite would say it was just all part of his technique.

Brando used his Stanislavski System skills for his first summer stock roles in Sayville, New York , on Long Island. Brando established a pattern of erratic, insubordinate behavior in the few shows he had been in.

His behavior had him kicked out of the cast of the New School's production in Sayville, but he was soon afterwards discovered in a locally produced play there.

Then, in , he made it to Broadway in the bittersweet drama I Remember Mama , playing the son of Mady Christians.

The Lunts wanted Brando to play the role of Alfred Lunt 's son in O Mistress Mine , and Lunt even coached him for his audition, but Brando's reading during the audition was so desultory that they couldn't hire him.

In , he appeared on Broadway as the young hero in the political drama A Flag is Born , refusing to accept wages above the Actors' Equity rate. He was also offered the opportunity to portray one of the principal characters in the Broadway premiere of Eugene O'Neill 's The Iceman Cometh , but turned the part down after falling asleep while trying to read the massive script and pronouncing the play "ineptly written and poorly constructed".

In , Brando's agent recommended he take a co-starring role in The Eagle Has Two Heads with Tallulah Bankhead , produced by Jack Wilson.

Bankhead had turned down the role of Blanche Dubois in A Streetcar Named Desire , which Williams had written for her, to tour the play for the — season.

Bankhead recognized Brando's potential, despite her disdain which most Broadway veterans shared for method acting, and agreed to hire him even though he auditioned poorly.

The two clashed greatly during the pre-Broadway tour, with Bankhead reminding Brando of his mother, being her age and also having a drinking problem.

Wilson was largely tolerant of Brando's behavior, but he reached his limit when Brando mumbled through a dress rehearsal shortly before the November 28, , opening.

He came ambling offstage and said to me, 'They don't think you can act unless you can yell. Critics were not as kind, however. A review of Brando's performance in the opening assessed that Brando was "still building his character, but at present fails to impress.

Brando displayed his apathy for the production by demonstrating some shocking onstage manners. He "tried everything in the world to ruin it for her," Bankhead's stage manager claimed.

This proved to be one of the greatest blessings of his career, as it freed him up to play the role of Stanley Kowalski in Tennessee Williams 's play A Streetcar Named Desire , directed by Elia Kazan.

Bankhead had recommended him to Williams for the role of Stanley, thinking he was perfect for the part.

Pierpont writes that John Garfield was first choice for the role, but "made impossible demands. In a letter dated August 29, , Williams confided to his agent Audrey Wood: "It had not occurred to me before what an excellent value would come through casting a very young actor in this part.

It humanizes the character of Stanley in that it becomes the brutality and callousness of youth rather than a vicious old man A new value came out of Brando's reading which was by far the best reading I have ever heard.

Graziano did not know who Brando was, but attended the production with tickets provided by the young man. He said, "The curtain went up and on the stage is that son of a bitch from the gym, and he's playing me.

In , Brando performed a screen test for an early Warner Brothers script for the novel Rebel Without a Cause , which bore no relation to the film eventually produced in Brando's first screen role was a bitter paraplegic veteran in The Men He spent a month in bed at the Birmingham Army Hospital in Van Nuys to prepare for the role.

The New York Times reviewer Bosley Crowther wrote that Brando as Ken "is so vividly real, dynamic and sensitive that his illusion is complete" and noted, "Out of stiff and frozen silences he can lash into a passionate rage with the tearful and flailing frenzy of a taut cable suddenly cut.

By Brando's own account, it may have been because of this film that his draft status was changed from 4-F to 1-A.

He had had surgery on his trick knee, and it was no longer physically debilitating enough to incur exclusion from the draft. When Brando reported to the induction center, he answered a questionnaire by saying his race was "human", his color was "Seasonal-oyster white to beige", and he told an Army doctor that he was psychoneurotic.

When the draft board referred him to a psychiatrist, Brando explained that he had been expelled from military school and had severe problems with authority.

Coincidentally, the psychiatrist knew a doctor friend of Brando. Brando avoided military service during the Korean War.

Early in his career, Brando began using cue cards instead of memorizing his lines. Despite the objections of several of the film directors he worked with, Brando felt that this helped bring realism and spontaneity to his performances.

He felt otherwise he would appear to be reciting a writer's speech. If you don't know what the words are but you have a general idea of what they are, then you look at the cue card and it gives you the feeling to the viewer, hopefully, that the person is really searching for what he is going to say—that he doesn't know what to say.

However, some [ who? Once on The Godfather set, Brando was asked why he wanted his lines printed out.

He responded, "Because I can read them that way. Brando brought his performance as Stanley Kowalski to the screen in Tennessee William's A Streetcar Named Desire The role is regarded as one of Brando's greatest.

The reception of Brando's performance was so positive that Brando quickly became a male sex symbol in Hollywood.

The role earned him his first Academy Award nomination in the Best Actor category. He was also nominated the next year for Viva Zapata!

It recounted his peasant upbringing, his rise to power in the early 20th century, and death. The film was directed by Elia Kazan and co-starred Anthony Quinn.

In the biopic Marlon Brando: The Wild One , Sam Shaw says, "Secretly, before the picture started, he went to Mexico to the very town where Zapata lived and was born in and it was there that he studied the speech patterns of people, their behavior, movement.

Years later, in his autobiography, Brando remarked: "Tony Quinn, whom I admired professionally and liked personally, played my brother, but he was extremely cold to me while we shot that picture.

During our scenes together, I sensed a bitterness toward me, and if I suggested a drink after work, he either turned me down or else was sullen and said little.

Only years later did I learn why. After achieving the desired effect, Kazan never told Quinn that he had misled him. It was only many years later, after comparing notes, that Brando and Quinn realized the deception.

Brando's next film, Julius Caesar , received highly favorable reviews. Brando portrayed Mark Antony. While most acknowledged Brando's talent, some critics felt Brando's "mumbling" and other idiosyncrasies betrayed a lack of acting fundamentals and, when his casting was announced, many remained dubious about his prospects for success.

Directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz and co-starring British stage actor John Gielgud , Brando delivered an impressive performance, especially during Antony's noted "Friends, Romans, countrymen Gielgud was so impressed that he offered Brando a full season at the Hammersmith Theatre, an offer he declined.

In his biography on the actor, Stefan Kanfer writes, "Marlon's autobiography devotes one line to his work on that film: Among all those British professionals, 'for me to walk onto a movie set and play Mark Anthony was asinine'—yet another example of his persistent self-denigration, and wholly incorrect.

It was like a furnace door opening—the heat came off the screen. I don't know another actor who could do that. By all accounts, Brando was upset by his mentor's decision, but he worked with him again in On The Waterfront.

In , Brando also starred in The Wild One , riding his own Triumph Thunderbird 6T motorcycle. Triumph's importers were ambivalent at the exposure, as the subject matter was rowdy motorcycle gangs taking over a small town.

The film was criticized for its perceived gratuitous violence at the time, with Time stating, "The effect of the movie is not to throw light on the public problem, but to shoot adrenaline through the moviegoer's veins.

To Brando's expressed puzzlement, the movie inspired teen rebellion and made him a role model to the nascent rock-and-roll generation and future stars such as James Dean and Elvis Presley.

After the movie's release, the sales of leather jackets and blue jeans skyrocketed. More than most parts I've played in the movies or onstage, I related to Johnny, and because of this, I believe I played him as more sensitive and sympathetic than the script envisioned.

There's a line in the picture where he snarls, 'Nobody tells me what to do. Later that same year, Brando starred in Lee Falk 's production of George Bernard Shaw 's Arms and the Man in Boston.

In , Brando starred in On the Waterfront , a crime drama film about union violence and corruption among longshoremen.

The film was directed by Elia Kazan and written by Budd Schulberg ; it also starred Karl Malden , Lee J. Cobb , Rod Steiger and, in her film debut, Eva Marie Saint.

When initially offered the role, Brando—still stung by Kazan's testimony to HUAC—demurred and the part of Terry Malloy nearly went to Frank Sinatra.

Brando won the Oscar for his role as Irish-American stevedore Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront. His performance, spurred on by his rapport with Eva Marie Saint and Kazan's direction, was praised as a tour de force.

For the scene in which Terry laments his failings, saying I coulda been a contender , he convinced Kazan that the scripted scene was unrealistic.

Schulberg's script had Brando acting the entire scene with his character being held at gunpoint by his brother Charlie, played by Rod Steiger.

Brando insisted on gently pushing away the gun, saying that Terry would never believe that his brother would pull the trigger and doubting that he could continue his speech while fearing a gun on him.

Kazan let Brando improvise and later expressed deep admiration for Brando's instinctive understanding, saying:. What other actor, when his brother draws a pistol to force him to do something shameful, would put his hand on the gun and push it away with the gentleness of a caress?

Who else could read "Oh, Charlie! If there is a better performance by a man in the history of film in America, I don't know what it is.

Weiler praised the film, calling it "an uncommonly powerful, exciting, and imaginative use of the screen by gifted professionals.

I thought I was a huge failure. Much later, it turned up at a London auction house, which contacted the actor and informed him of its whereabouts.

Following On the Waterfront , Brando remained a top box office draw, but critics increasingly felt his performances were half-hearted, lacking the intensity and commitment found in his earlier work, especially in his work with Kazan.

According to co-star Jean Simmons , Brando's contract forced him to star in the movie. He put little effort into the role, claiming he didn't like the script, and later dismissed the entire movie as "superficial and dismal".

Brando was especially contemptuous of director Henry Koster. Brando and Simmons were paired together again in the film adaptation of the musical Guys and Dolls Guys and Dolls would be Brando's first and last musical role.

Time found the picture "false to the original in its feeling", remarking that Brando "sings in a faraway tenor that sometimes tends to be flat.

They sewed my words together on one song so tightly that when I mouthed it in front of the camera, I nearly asphyxiated myself".

Relations between Brando and costar Frank Sinatra were also frosty, with Stefan Kanfer observing: "The two men were diametrical opposites: Marlon required multiple takes; Frank detested repeating himself.

Brando played Sakini, a Japanese interpreter for the U. Army in postwar Japan , in The Teahouse of the August Moon Pauline Kael was not particularly impressed by the movie, but noted "Marlon Brando starved himself to play the pixie interpreter Sakini, and he looks as if he's enjoying the stunt—talking with a mad accent, grinning boyishly, bending forward, and doing tricky movements with his legs.

He's harmlessly genial and he is certainly missed when he's offscreen , though the fey, roguish role doesn't allow him to do what he's great at and it's possible that he's less effective in it than a lesser actor might have been.

Newsweek found the film a "dull tale of the meeting of the twain", but it was nevertheless a box-office success. According to Stefan Kanfer's biography of the actor, Brando's manager Jay Kanter negotiated a profitable contract with ten percent of the gross going to Brando, which put him in the millionaire category.

The movie was controversial due to openly discussing interracial marriage , but proved a great success, earning 10 Academy Award nominations, with Brando being nominated for Best Actor.

The film went on to win four Academy Awards. Teahouse and Sayonara were the first in a string of films Brando would strive to make over the next decade which contained socially relevant messages, and he formed a partnership with Paramount to establish his own production company called Pennebaker, its declared purpose to develop films that contained "social value that would improve the world.

In , Brando appeared in The Young Lions , dyeing his hair blonde and assuming a German accent for the role, which he later admitted was not convincing.

The film is based on the novel by Irwin Shaw , and Brando's portrayal of the character Christian Diestl was controversial for its time. I thought the story should demonstrate that there are no inherently 'bad' people in the world, but they can easily be misled.

I play the role; now he exists. He is my creation. Brando closed out the decade by appearing in The Fugitive Kind opposite Anna Magnani.

The film was based on another play by Tennessee Williams but was hardly the success A Streetcar Named Desire had been, with the Los Angeles Times labeling Williams's personae "psychologically sick or just plain ugly" and The New Yorker calling it a "cornpone melodrama".

In , Brando made his directorial debut in the western One-Eyed Jacks. The picture was originally directed by Stanley Kubrick , but he was fired early in the production.

Paramount then made Brando the director. Brando portrays the lead character Rio, and Karl Malden plays his partner "Dad" Longworth. The supporting cast features Katy Jurado , Ben Johnson , and Slim Pickens.

Brando's penchant for multiple retakes and character exploration as an actor carried over into his directing, however, and the film soon went over budget; Paramount expected the film to take three months to complete but shooting stretched to six and the cost doubled to more than six million dollars.

Brando's inexperience as an editor also delayed postproduction and Paramount eventually took control of the film. Brando later wrote, "Paramount said it didn't like my version of the story; I'd had everyone lie except Karl Malden.

The studio cut the movie to pieces and made him a liar, too. By then, I was bored with the whole project and walked away from it. While the film did solid business, it ran so over budget that it lost money.

Brando's revulsion with the film industry reportedly boiled over on the set of his next film, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 's remake of Mutiny on the Bounty , which was filmed in Tahiti.

The actor was accused of deliberately sabotaging nearly every aspect of the production. On June 16, , The Saturday Evening Post ran an article by Bill Davidson with the headline "Six million dollars down the drain: the mutiny of Marlon Brando".

Mutiny director Lewis Milestone claimed that the executives "deserve what they get when they give a ham actor, a petulant child, complete control over an expensive picture.

Critics also began taking note of his fluctuating weight. Distracted by his personal life and becoming disillusioned with his career, Brando began to view acting as a means to a financial end.

Critics protested when he started accepting roles in films many perceived as being beneath his talent, or criticized him for failing to live up to the better roles.

Previously only signing short-term deals with film studios, in Brando uncharacteristically signed a five-picture deal with Universal Studios that would haunt him for the rest of the decade.

The Ugly American was the first of these films. Based on the novel of the same title that Pennebaker had optioned, the film, which featured Brando's sister Jocelyn, was rated fairly positively but died at the box office.

Brando was nominated for a Golden Globe for his performance. All of Brando's other Universal films during this period, including Bedtime Story , The Appaloosa , A Countess from Hong Kong and The Night of the Following Day , were also critical and commercial flops.

The experience turned out to be an unhappy one; Brando was horrified at Chaplin's didactic style of direction and his authoritarian approach.

Brando had also appeared in the spy thriller Morituri in ; that, too, failed to attract an audience. Brando acknowledged his professional decline, writing later, "Some of the films I made during the sixties were successful; some weren't.

Some, like The Night of the Following Day , I made only for the money; others, like Candy , I did because a friend asked me to and I didn't want to turn him down In some ways I think of my middle age as the Fuck You Years.

It is generally regarded as the nadir of Brando's career. The Washington Post observed: "Brando's self-indulgence over a dozen years is costing him and his public his talents.

Not for the first time, Mr. Brando gives us a heavy-lidded, adenoidally openmouthed caricature of the inarticulate, stalwart loner. I was very convincing in my pose of indifference, but I was very sensitive and it hurt a lot.

Brando portrayed a repressed gay army officer in Reflections in a Golden Eye , directed by John Huston and costarring Elizabeth Taylor.

The role turned out as one of his most acclaimed in years, with Stanley Crouch marveling, "Brando's main achievement was to portray the taciturn but stoic gloom of those pulverized by circumstances.

Another notable film was The Chase , which paired the actor with Arthur Penn , Robert Duvall , Jane Fonda and Robert Redford. The film deals with themes of racism, sexual revolution, small-town corruption, and vigilantism.

The film was received mostly positively. Brando cited Burn! Brando also detailed his clashes with Pontecorvo on the set and how "we nearly killed each other.

In , Michael Winner directed him in the British horror film The Nightcomers with Stephanie Beacham , Thora Hird , Harry Andrews and Anna Palk.

It is a prequel to The Turn of the Screw , which later became the film The Innocents. Brando's performance earned him a nomination for a Best Actor BAFTA, but the film bombed at the box office.

During the s, Brando was considered "unbankable". Brando's performance as Vito Corleone , the "Don," in The Godfather , Francis Ford Coppola 's adaptation of Mario Puzo 's bestselling novel of the same name , was a career turning point, putting him back in the Top Ten and winning him his second Best Actor Oscar.

Paramount production chief Robert Evans , who had given Puzo an advance to write The Godfather so that Paramount would own the film rights, [50] hired Coppola after many major directors had turned the film down.

Evans wanted an Italian-American director who could provide the film with cultural authenticity. Coppola also came cheap. Evans was conscious of the fact that Paramount's last Mafia film, The Brotherhood had been a box office bomb, and he believed it was partly due to the fact that the director, Martin Ritt , and the star, Kirk Douglas , were Jews and the film lacked an authentic Italian flavor.

Coppola had developed a list of actors for all the roles, and his list of potential Dons included the Oscar-winning Italian-American Ernest Borgnine , [52] the Italian-American Frank de Kova best known for playing Chief Wild Eagle on the TV sitcom F-Troop , John Marley a Best Supporting Oscar-nominee for Paramount's hit film Love Story who was cast as the film producer Jack Woltz in the picture , the Italian-American Richard Conte who was cast as Don Corleone's deadly rival Don Emilio Barzini , and Italian film producer Carlo Ponti.

Coppola admitted in a interview, "We finally figured we had to lure the best actor in the world. It was that simple. That boiled down to Laurence Olivier or Marlon Brando, who are the greatest actors in the world.

Evans told Coppola that he had been thinking of Brando for the part two years earlier, and Puzo had imagined Brando in the part when he wrote the novel and had actually written to him about the part, [54] so Coppola and Evans narrowed it down to Brando.

He bested Brando at the New York Film Critics Circle Awards. Albert S. Ruddy , whom Paramount assigned to produce the film, agreed with the choice of Brando.

However, Paramount studio heads were opposed to casting Brando due to his reputation for difficulty and his long string of box office flops.

Brando also had One-Eyed Jacks working against him, a troubled production that lost money for Paramount when it was released in Paramount Pictures President Stanley Jaffe told an exasperated Coppola, "As long as I'm president of this studio, Marlon Brando will not be in this picture, and I will no longer allow you to discuss it.

Jaffe eventually set three conditions for the casting of Brando: That he would have to take a fee far below what he typically received; he'd have to agree to accept financial responsibility for any production delays his behavior cost; and he had to submit to a screen test.

Coppola convinced Brando to a videotaped "make-up" test, in which Brando did his own makeup he used cotton balls to simulate the character's puffed cheeks.

Coppola had feared Brando might be too young to play the Don, but was electrified by the actor's characterization as the head of a crime family.

Even so, he had to fight the studio in order to cast the temperamental actor. Brando had doubts himself, stating in his autobiography, "I had never played an Italian before, and I didn't think I could do it successfully.

Who is this old guinea? In a interview that can be found on the Academy of Achievement website, Coppola insisted, " The Godfather was a very unappreciated movie when we were making it.

They were very unhappy with it. They didn't like the cast. They didn't like the way I was shooting it. I was always on the verge of getting fired.

Brando was on his best behavior during filming, buoyed by a cast that included Pacino, Robert Duvall , James Caan , and Diane Keaton.

In the Vanity Fair article "The Godfather Wars", Mark Seal writes, "With the actors, as in the movie, Brando served as the head of the family.

He broke the ice by toasting the group with a glass of wine. Brando's performance was glowingly reviewed by critics.

Robinson played, but who is kind of a hero, a man to be respected," Brando recalled in his autobiography. In other words he, like, deemphasized the word action.

He would go in front of that camera just like he was before. It was all the same. There was really no beginning. I learned a lot from watching that.

Scott for Patton. He boycotted the award ceremony, instead sending indigenous American rights activist Sacheen Littlefeather , who appeared in full Apache attire, to state Brando's reasons, which were based on his objection to the depiction of indigenous Americans by Hollywood and television.

The actor followed The Godfather with Bernardo Bertolucci's film Last Tango in Paris opposite Maria Schneider , but Brando's highly noted performance threatened to be overshadowed by an uproar over the sexual content of the film.

Brando portrays a recent American widower named Paul, who begins an anonymous sexual relationship with a young, betrothed Parisian woman named Jeanne.

As with previous films, Brando refused to memorize his lines for many scenes; instead, he wrote his lines on cue cards and posted them around the set for easy reference, leaving Bertolucci with the problem of keeping them out of the picture frame.

The film features several intense, graphic scenes involving Brando, including Paul anally raping Jeanne using butter as a lubricant, which it was alleged was not consensual, [60] and Paul's angry, emotionally charged final confrontation with the corpse of his dead wife.

The controversial movie was a hit, however, and Brando made the list of Top Ten Box Office Stars for the last time.

Although Brando won the New York Film Critics Circle Awards, he did not attend the ceremony or send a representative to pick up the award if he won.

Critic Pauline Kael , in The New Yorker review, wrote "The movie breakthrough has finally come. Bertolucci and Brando have altered the face of an art form.

In , Brando was devastated by the death of his childhood best friend Wally Cox. Brando slept in Cox's pajamas and wrenched his ashes from his widow.

She was going to sue for their return, but finally said "I think Marlon needs the ashes more than I do. In , Brando appeared in The Missouri Breaks with his friend Jack Nicholson.

The movie also reunited the actor with director Arthur Penn. As biographer Stefan Kanfer describes, Penn had difficulty controlling Brando, who seemed intent on going over the top with his border-ruffian-turned-contract-killer Robert E.

Lee Clayton: "Marlon made him a cross-dressing psychopath. Absent for the first hour of the movie, Clayton enters on horseback, dangling upside down, caparisoned in white buckskin, Littlefeather-style.

He speaks in an Irish accent for no apparent reason. Over the next hour, also for no apparent reason, Clayton assumes the intonation of a British upper-class twit and an elderly frontier woman, complete with a granny dress and matching bonnet.

Penn, who believed in letting actors do their thing, indulged Marlon all the way. In , Brando narrated the English version of Raoni , a French-Belgian documentary film directed by Jean-Pierre Dutilleux and Luiz Carlos Saldanha that focused on the life of Raoni Metuktire and issues surrounding the survival of the indigenous Indian tribes of north central Brazil.

Brando portrayed Superman 's father Jor-El in the film Superman. He agreed to the role only on assurance that he would be paid a large sum for what amounted to a small part, that he would not have to read the script beforehand, and that his lines would be displayed somewhere off-camera.

Brando also filmed scenes for the movie's sequel, Superman II , but after producers refused to pay him the same percentage he received for the first movie, he denied them permission to use the footage.

Brando starred as Colonel Walter E. Kurtz in Francis Ford Coppola's Vietnam epic Apocalypse Now He plays a highly decorated U.

Army Special Forces officer who goes renegade, running his own operation based in Cambodia and is feared by the U. The film drew attention for its lengthy and troubled production, as Eleanor Coppola 's documentary Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse documents: Brando showed up on the set overweight, Martin Sheen suffered a heart attack, and severe weather destroyed several expensive sets.

The film's release was also postponed several times while Coppola edited millions of feet of footage. In the documentary, Coppola talks about how astonished he was when an overweight Brando turned up for his scenes and, feeling desperate, decided to portray Kurtz, who appears emaciated in the original story, as a man who had indulged every aspect of himself.

Coppola: "He was already heavy when I hired him and he promised me that he was going to get in shape and I imagined that I would, if he were heavy, I could use that.

But he was so fat, he was very, very shy about it He was very, very adamant about how he didn't want to portray himself that way. And Francis and Marlon would be talking about the character and whole days would go by.

And this is at Marlon's urging—and yet he's getting paid for it. Upon release, Apocalypse Now earned critical acclaim, as did Brando's performance.

His whispering of Kurtz's final words "The horror! The horror! Roger Ebert , writing in the Chicago Sun-Times , defended the movie's controversial denouement , opining that the ending, "with Brando's fuzzy, brooding monologues and the final violence, feels much more satisfactory than any conventional ending possibly could.

After appearing as oil tycoon Adam Steiffel in 's The Formula , which was poorly received critically, Brando announced his retirement from acting.

Brando agreed to do the film for free, but fell out with director Euzhan Palcy over how the film was edited; he even made a rare television appearance in an interview with Connie Chung to voice his disapproval.

In his memoir, he maintained that Palcy "had cut the picture so poorly, I thought, that the inherent drama of this conflict was vague at best.

Brando scored enthusiastic reviews for his caricature of his Vito Corleone role as Carmine Sabatini in 's The Freshman. In his original review, Roger Ebert wrote, "There have been a lot of movies where stars have repeated the triumphs of their parts—but has any star ever done it more triumphantly than Marlon Brando does in The Freshman?

Later performances, such as his appearance in Christopher Columbus: The Discovery for which he was nominated for a Raspberry as "Worst Supporting Actor" , The Island of Dr.

Moreau in which he won a "Worst Supporting Actor" Raspberry , and his barely recognizable appearance in Free Money , resulted in some of the worst reviews of his career.

The Island of Dr. Moreau screenwriter Ron Hutchinson would later say in his memoir, Clinging to the Iceberg: Writing for a Living on the Stage and in Hollywood , that Brando sabotaged the film's production by feuding and refusing to cooperate with his colleagues and the film crew.

Unlike its immediate predecessors, Brando's last completed film, The Score , was received generally positively.

In the film, in which he portrays a fence , he starred with Robert De Niro. After Brando's death, the novel Fan-Tan was released.

Brando conceived the novel with director Donald Cammell in , but it was not released until Brando's notoriety, his troubled family life, and his obesity attracted more attention than his late acting career.

He had a history of weight fluctuation throughout his career that, by and large, he attributed to his years of stress-related overeating followed by compensatory dieting.

He also earned a reputation for being difficult on the set, often unwilling or unable to memorize his lines and less interested in taking direction than in confronting the film director with odd demands.

He also dabbled with some innovation in his last years. He had several patents issued in his name from the U. Patent and Trademark Office , all of which involve a method of tensioning drumheads , in June — November For example, see U.

Patent 6,, and its equivalents. A longtime close friend of entertainer Michael Jackson , he paid regular visits to his Neverland Ranch , resting there for weeks at a time.

Brando also participated in the singer's two-day solo career 30th-anniversary celebration concerts in , and starred in his minute-long music video, " You Rock My World ," in the same year.

The actor's son, Miko, was Jackson's bodyguard and assistant for several years, and was a friend of the singer. He had a hour chef, hour security, hour help, hour kitchen, hour maid service.

Just carte blanche. For that I will always be indebted to him. Dad had a hard time breathing in his final days, and he was on oxygen much of the time.

He loved the outdoors, so Michael would invite him over to Neverland. Dad could name all the trees there, and the flowers, but being on oxygen it was hard for him to get around and see them all, it's such a big place.

So Michael got Dad a golf cart with a portable oxygen tank so he could go around and enjoy Neverland. They'd just drive around—Michael Jackson, Marlon Brando, with an oxygen tank in a golf cart.

In , Brando signed with Tunisian film director Ridha Behi and began preproduction on a project to be titled Brando and Brando. On July 1, , Brando died of respiratory failure from pulmonary fibrosis with congestive heart failure at the UCLA Medical Center.

He also suffered from diabetes and liver cancer. However, Brando recorded only one line due to his health, and an impersonator was hired to finish his lines.

His single recorded line was included within the final game as a tribute to the actor. Some additional lines from his character were directly lifted from the film.

Karl Malden —Brando's co-star in three films, A Streetcar Named Desire , On the Waterfront , and One-Eyed Jacks the last being the only film directed by Brando -- spoke in a documentary accompanying the DVD of A Streetcar Named Desire about a phone call he received from Brando shortly before Brando's death.

A distressed Brando told Malden he kept falling over. Malden wanted to come over, but Brando put him off, telling him there was no point. Three weeks later, Brando was dead.

Shortly before his death, he had apparently refused permission for tubes carrying oxygen to be inserted into his lungs, which, he was told, was the only way to prolong his life.

Brando was cremated , and his ashes were put in with those of his good friend Wally Cox and another longtime friend, Sam Gilman. Brando was known for his tumultuous personal life and his large number of partners and children.

He was the father to at least 11 children, three of whom were adopted. Like a large number of men, I, too, have had homosexual experiences, and I am not ashamed.

I have never paid much attention to what people think about me. But if there is someone who is convinced that Jack Nicholson and I are lovers, may they continue to do so.

I find it amusing. In Songs My Mother Taught Me , Brando wrote that he met Marilyn Monroe at a party where she played piano, unnoticed by anybody else there, that they had an affair and maintained an intermittent relationship for many years, and that he received a telephone call from her several days before she died.

He also claimed numerous other romances, although he did not discuss his marriages, his wives, or his children in his autobiography. He met nisei actress and dancer Reiko Sato in the early s; in Dorothy Kilgallen reported they were an item.

Though their relationship cooled, they remained friends for the rest of Sato's life, with her dividing her time between Los Angeles and Tetiaroa in her later years.

Brando was smitten with the Mexican actress Katy Jurado after seeing her in High Noon. They met when Brando was filming Viva Zapata! Brando told Joseph L.

Mankiewicz that he was attracted to "her enigmatic eyes, black as hell, pointing at you like fiery arrows". Brando met actress Rita Moreno in , and they began a love affair.

Moreno later revealed in her memoir that when she became pregnant by Brando he arranged for an abortion. After the abortion was botched, she attempted suicide by overdosing on Brando's sleeping pills.

Brando married actress Anna Kashfi in She is said to have been the daughter of a Welsh steel worker of Irish descent, William O'Callaghan, who had been superintendent on the Indian State railways.

However, in her book, Brando for Breakfast , she claimed that she really is half Indian and that the press incorrectly thought that her stepfather, O'Callaghan, was her biological father.

She said that her biological father was Indian and that she was the result of an "unregistered alliance" between her parents.

Brando and Kashfi had a son, Christian Brando , on May 11, ; they divorced in In , Brando married Movita Castaneda , a Mexican-American actress; the marriage was annulled in after it was discovered her previous marriage was still active.

They had two children together: Miko Castaneda Brando born and Rebecca Brando born French actress Tarita Teriipaia , who played Brando's love interest in Mutiny on the Bounty , became his third wife on August 10, Brando also adopted Teriipaia's daughter, Maimiti Brando born and niece, Raiatua Brando born Brando and Teriipaia divorced in July After Brando's death, the daughter of actress Cynthia Lynn claimed that Brando had had a short-lived affair with her mother, who appeared with Brando in Bedtime Story , and that this affair resulted in her birth in Brando had a long-term relationship with his housekeeper Maria Cristina Ruiz, with whom he had three children: Ninna Priscilla Brando born May 13, , Myles Jonathan Brando born January 16, , and Timothy Gahan Brando born January 6, Brando also adopted Petra Brando-Corval born , the daughter of his assistant Caroline Barrett and novelist James Clavell.

Brando's close friendship with Wally Cox was the subject of rumors. Brando told a journalist: "If Wally had been a woman, I would have married him and we would have lived happily ever after.

Brando's grandson Tuki Brando born , son of Cheyenne Brando , is a fashion model. His numerous grandchildren also include Prudence Brando and Shane Brando, children of Miko C.

Brando; the children of Rebecca Brando; [] and the three children of Teihotu Brando among others. Stephen Blackehart has been reported to be the son of Brando, [] [] but Blackehart disputes this claim.

In , Quincy Jones and Jennifer Lee claimed that Brando had had a sexual relationship with comedian and Superman III actor Richard Pryor.

Brando earned a reputation as a ' bad boy ' for his public outbursts and antics. According to Los Angeles magazine, "Brando was rock and roll before anybody knew what rock and roll was.

He was blamed for a change in director and a runaway budget, though he disclaimed responsibility for either.

On June 12, , Brando broke paparazzo Ron Galella 's jaw. Galella had followed Brando, who was accompanied by talk show host Dick Cavett , after a taping of The Dick Cavett Show in New York City.

The filming of Mutiny on the Bounty affected Brando's life in a profound way, as he fell in love with Tahiti and its people. He bought a island atoll , Tetiaroa , and in hired an award-winning young Los Angeles architect, Bernard Judge , to build his home and natural village there without despoiling the environment.

An environmental laboratory protecting sea birds and turtles was established, and for many years student groups visited.

The hurricane destroyed many of the structures including his resort. A hotel using Brando's name, The Brando Resort [] opened in He was listed in the Federal Communications Commission FCC records as Martin Brandeaux to preserve his privacy.

On the other hand he hated it because he knew it was false and ephemeral. It has to be done his way or he goes away with some vast story about how he was wronged, he was offended, and I think that fits with the psychological pattern that he was a wronged kid.

In , Brando performed in Ben Hecht 's Zionist play A Flag is Born. He attended some fundraisers for John F. Kennedy in the presidential election.

In August , he participated in the March on Washington along with fellow celebrities Harry Belafonte , James Garner , Charlton Heston , Burt Lancaster and Sidney Poitier.

In the aftermath of the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. Shortly after King's death, he announced that he was bowing out of the lead role of a major film The Arrangement which was about to begin production in order to devote himself to the civil rights movement.

And there were snipers and there was a lot of unrest and he kept walking and talking through those neighborhoods with Mayor Lindsay.

It was one of the most incredible acts of courage I ever saw, and it meant a lot and did a lot. Brando's participation in the civil rights movement actually began well before King's death.

In the early s, he contributed thousands of dollars to both the Southern Christian Leadership Conference S.

In Brando was arrested at a " fish-in " held to protest a broken treaty that had promised Native Americans fishing rights in Puget Sound.

For a time, he was also donating money to the Black Panther Party and considered himself a friend of founder Bobby Seale. Brando was also a supporter of the American Indian Movement.

At the Academy Awards ceremony, Brando refused to accept the Oscar for his performance in The Godfather. Sacheen Littlefeather represented him at the ceremony.

She appeared in full Apache attire and stated that owing to the "poor treatment of Native Americans in the film industry", Brando would not accept the award.

The event grabbed the attention of the US and the world media. This was considered a major event and victory for the movement by its supporters and participants.

Outside of his film work, Brando appeared before the California Assembly in support of a fair housing law and personally joined picket lines in demonstrations protesting discrimination in housing developments in He was also an activist against apartheid.

He took part at a protest rally against American investments in South Africa and for the release of Nelson Mandela.

In an interview in Playboy magazine in January , Brando said: "You've seen every single race besmirched, but you never saw an image of the kike because the Jews were ever so watchful for that—and rightly so.

They never allowed it to be shown on screen. The Jews have done so much for the world that, I suppose, you get extra disappointed because they didn't pay attention to that.

Brando made a similar comment on Larry King Live in April , saying:. Hollywood is run by Jews; it is owned by Jews, and they should have a greater sensitivity about the issue of—of people who are suffering.

Because they've exploited—we have seen the—we have seen the nigger and greaseball , we've seen the chink , we've seen the slit-eyed dangerous Jap , we have seen the wily Filipino , we've seen everything, but we never saw the kike.

Because they knew perfectly well, that that is where you draw the wagons around. Larry King , who was Jewish, replied: "When you say—when you say something like that, you are playing right in, though, to anti-Semitic people who say the Jews are—" Brando interrupted: "No, no, because I will be the first one who will appraise the Jews honestly and say 'Thank God for the Jews'.

Jay Kanter , Brando's agent, producer, and friend, defended him in Daily Variety : "Marlon has spoken to me for hours about his fondness for the Jewish people, and he is a well-known supporter of Israel.

Walter E. Kurtz in 'Apocalypse Now', but I remember Marlon Brando as a mensch and a personal friend of the Jewish people when they needed it most.

Brando was one of the most respected actors of the post-war era. He is listed by the American Film Institute as the fourth greatest male star whose screen debut occurred before or during it occurred in He earned respect among critics for his memorable performances and charismatic screen presence.

He helped popularize Method acting. Encyclopedia Britannica describes him as "the most celebrated of the method actors, and his slurred, mumbling delivery marked his rejection of classical dramatic training.

His true and passionate performances proved him one of the greatest actors of his generation". It also notes the apparent paradox of his talent: "He is regarded as the most influential actor of his generation, yet his open disdain for the acting profession An den in- und ausländischen Kinokassen spielte der Film zwar 20 Millionen Dollar ein, die Produktionskosten hatten jedoch 30 Millionen Dollar betragen.

Marlon Brando musste sich darüber hinaus verpflichten, in fünf Produktionen der Universal mitzuwirken.

Die Filme, die unter diesem Vertrag entstanden, waren künstlerisch von uneinheitlicher Qualität. Brando erwies sich darin häufig als fehlbesetzt oder zeigte nur schwache schauspielerische Leistungen.

Der erste Film dieser Reihe, Der hässliche Amerikaner , war eine vor dem Hintergrund des Kalten Kriegs entstandene Verfilmung des erschienenen gleichnamigen Politromans, der erzählt, wie die USA in einem vom Bürgerkrieg heimgesuchten südostasiatischen Land den Kampf gegen den Kommunismus verlieren.

Brando spielte darin die Rolle eines intelligenten, gebildeten und eleganten amerikanischen Botschafters, der in dieser politischen Auseinandersetzung zwischen die Fronten gerät.

Nach der Kinopremiere im April hatte das Publikum an dem Film kaum Interesse. In der Universal-Komödie Zwei erfolgreiche Verführer , die den Erfolg von so frivolen Komödien wie Bettgeflüster und Unternehmen Petticoat fortsetzen sollte, spielte Brando mit David Niven als Partner einen Gigolo , der sich an der Riviera über alleinstehende Frauen hermacht.

Brando wirkte in dem Film, der im Frühsommer gedreht wurde und im Juni in die Kinos kam, nur mit, weil er vertraglich dazu verpflichtet war und das Geld brauchte; er unternahm keinen Versuch, seiner Rolle, für die er nach Ansicht der Kritik völlig fehlbesetzt war, irgendeine Mehrdimensionalität zu verleihen.

Dass Brando auch in dem Film Morituri mitwirken musste, hatte nichts mit seiner Verpflichtung gegenüber der Universal zu tun, sondern war noch eine Spätfolge seines Vertragsbruchs gegenüber der 20th Century Fox im Jahr Morituri war ein Kriegsspionagethriller, in dem Brando neben Yul Brynner , Trevor Howard und Janet Margolin einen deutschen Deserteur spielt, der vom britischen Geheimdienst erpresst wird, an der Auslieferung eines deutschen Blockadebrechers mitzuwirken.

Während der Dreharbeiten, die im Herbst auf einem Frachtschiff des Zweiten Weltkriegs gemacht wurden und bei denen Bernhard Wicki Regie führte, entwickelte Brando weder an dem Film, der eine reine Abenteuergeschichte war, noch an der Figur des Robert Crain Interesse und spielte die Rolle so flach, dass seine Darstellung später vernichtend rezensiert wurde.

Der Film, der im August herauskam, wurde von der Kritik lediglich aufgrund der Kameraarbeit von Conrad L.

Hall gelobt. Im April unterzeichnete Brando zum zweiten Mal einen Vertrag für eine Rolle in einem Film von Produzent Sam Spiegel.

In Ein Mann wird gejagt sollte er den jungen Sheriff einer texanischen Kleinstadt spielen, der einen entflohenen Häftling vor der Lynchjustiz der bigotten Einwohnerschaft zu schützen versucht.

Aufgrund der politischen Dimension der Handlung hatte Brando an dem Filmprojekt starkes persönliches Interesse und auch darüber hinaus waren die Voraussetzungen für die Produktion eines interessanten Films eigentlich günstig: neben Brando traten in Ein Mann wird gejagt so unkonventionelle junge Talente wie Jane Fonda , Robert Redford und Angie Dickinson auf; dazu kam, dass Regisseur Arthur Penn dafür bekannt war, dass seine Filme mit dem Mainstream nur wenig zu tun hatten.

Über den fertigen Film, der im Februar uraufgeführt wurde, war Brando sehr unglücklich. Das Skript war unausgereift und Brando nahm die Rolle nur an, weil er die Gage benötigte.

Die Dreharbeiten, die im August in St. George , Utah und Wrightsville, Kalifornien stattfanden, wurden durch Spannungen zwischen Brando und Regisseur Sidney J.

Furie belastet. Nach der Premiere im September erhielten beide schlechte Kritiken. Brando wurde vorgeworfen, in der Figur des Matt Fletcher die Karikatur eines rauen Einzelgängers geliefert und damit die künstlerisch heikle Grenze zur Selbstparodie überschritten zu haben.

In ihrem Essay Marlon Brando: An American Hero klagte Pauline Kael , Brando sei aus Enttäuschung über den Verlauf seiner Karriere und über das Ausbleiben künstlerischer Herausforderungen vom Rebellen zum Exzentriker degeneriert.

In der Universal-Komödie Die Gräfin von Hongkong sollte Brando einen amerikanischen Botschafter spielen, in dessen Schiffskabine eine vor der Zwangsprostitution fliehende russische Gräfin als blinde Passagierin Zuflucht sucht.

Während der Dreharbeiten in den Londoner Pinewood Studios , die im Januar begannen, kam es allerdings zu Spannungen zwischen Brando und seiner Partnerin Sophia Loren.

Noch folgenreicher waren Konflikte, die sich auch zwischen Brando und Chaplin ergaben. Während Brando vor der Kamera sehr weiten Raum zur Improvisation benötigte, war Chaplin ein minuziös planender Choreograf, der seinen Darstellern ganz präzise Vorgaben machte.

Brando war es extrem zuwider, zu imitieren, was man ihm vorgab. Da der jährige Chaplin eine so ehrwürdige Institution war, fügte Brando sich zwar, lieferte jedoch eine bleierne und leblose Interpretation seiner Rolle, was ihm die Kritik nach der amerikanischen Kinopremiere im März sehr übel nahm.

Die Gräfin von Hongkong gilt als einer der schlechtesten Filme Brandos und war auch der Schwanengesang von Chaplins Karriere.

Anfang der er Jahre hatte Warner Bros. Die Vorbereitungen wurden zunächst wiederholt aufgeschoben. Einer der Gründe war das brisante Thema des Films: Neben Elizabeth Taylor sollte Brando darin die Rolle eines amerikanischen Offiziers spielen, der mit seiner unterdrückten Homosexualität ringt und auf dem Höhepunkt des Konflikts den sexuell ambivalenten Verehrer seiner Frau tötet.

Spiegelbild im goldenen Auge sollte der erste Film in der Geschichte Hollywoods werden, der das Thema Homosexualität explizit behandelte.

Da Brando fürchtete, sein ohnehin schon angeschlagenes Image könnte noch weiter beschädigt werden, zögerte er zunächst, die Rolle anzunehmen.

Während der Dreharbeiten, die im Herbst in Rom begannen, erwies es sich als Glücksfall, dass John Huston Regie führte: ein Mann, der es gewohnt war, seinen Schauspielern vor der Kamera soviel Freiraum wie möglich zu lassen.

Brando ging ganz in der Rolle auf und arbeitete die Vielschichtigkeit des Charakters — Pendertons verdrängte Sexualität, seinen schwelenden Zorn und seine latente Gewalttätigkeit — genau heraus.

Bei seiner Veröffentlichung im Oktober wurde der Film von Publikum und Kritik kühl aufgenommen, Huston hielt das ambitionierte Werk jedoch für eines seiner besten.

Der nächste Film, in dem Brando mitwirkte, die bizarre Sex-Farce Candy , war kein von Anfang an wertloses Projekt.

Terry Southern , der die Romanvorlage lieferte, hatte zuvor u. Seltsam oder: Wie ich lernte, die Bombe zu lieben mitgeschrieben und Drehbuchautor Buck Henry hatte sich durch seine Mitwirkung an dem Film Die Reifeprüfung empfohlen.

Das Drehbuch sah eine Reihe von Cameo-Auftritten berühmter Stars vor, darunter von James Coburn , Walter Matthau , John Huston , Charles Aznavour , Richard Burton und eben Brando, der die Rolle eines sexsüchtigen indischen Gurus übernahm.

Der Low-Budget -Thriller Die Nacht des folgenden Tages war der fünfte und letzte Film, in dem Brando mitwirken musste, um seine Verpflichtung gegenüber der Universal zu erfüllen.

Mit blonder Perücke und schwarzem T-Shirt spielte er den Entführer einer jungen Erbin, der im letzten Augenblick moralisch geläutert wird und das Opfer vor seinen Komplizen dargestellt von Richard Boone und Rita Moreno rettet.

Grimaldi sah Brando für die Rolle von Sir William Walker vor, eines Gesandten der britischen Regierung, der im Jahrhundert auf einer fiktiven karibischen Zuckerrohrinsel einen Sklavenaufstand anzetteln soll, um die portugiesische Kolonialmacht zugunsten der britischen zu verdrängen.

Da die ausdrückliche politische Aussage des Drehbuchs Brando sehr entgegenkam und der Regisseur, Gillo Pontecorvo , ein erfahrener Experte für politische Filme war, hätte das Projekt eigentlich unter einem guten Stern stehen sollen.

Die Dreharbeiten, die im November in Kolumbien begannen, litten jedoch unter einer ganzen Reihe von Plagen und Problemen. Die Arbeit der Drehcrew wurde durch Insekten, Hitze, verdorbenes Essen und Durchfall behindert, dazu kam eine ständige Bedrohung von Überfällen durch bewaffnete Räuber.

Pontecorvo erwies sich als straff arbeitender Regisseur, der sich genau ans Skript hielt, was mit Brandos Arbeitsstil inkompatibel war und ihm die Lust an dem Film verdarb.

Im Juli zog das Aufnahmeteam nach Marokko um, wo Queimada nach Brandos Rückkehr fertiggedreht werden konnte. Die Verzögerungen und der Wechsel des Drehorts verursachten freilich hohe Kosten, deretwegen Grimaldi Brando später auf Nach der Kinopremiere, die in Italien Ende , in den USA im Oktober stattfand, kritisierte die Presse den Helden, den Brando in dem Film verkörperte, als allzu konventionell.

Dessen ungeachtet fand Brando Queimada wunderbar und rühmte ihn als seinen bis dahin besten Film. In dem britischen Low-Budget-Film Das Loch in der Tür , einem psychologischen Thriller, dessen Handlung um auf einem einsamen englischen Landsitz spielt, wirkte Brando mit, weil er Geld brauchte und keine andere Wahl hatte.

Die Dreharbeiten fanden zu Beginn des Jahres in der Nähe des englischen Cambridge statt. Anfang veröffentlichte Mario Puzo seinen Mafia -Roman Der Pate.

Im September beschloss die Paramount eine Verfilmung des Bestsellers und beauftragte Puzo mit dem Drehbuch.

Da ein kurz zuvor herausgebrachter Mafia-Film — Auftrag Mord mit Kirk Douglas — gefloppt war, beabsichtigte die Paramount zunächst nur einen Low-Budget-Film zu drehen und wählte als Regisseur den jungen und bis dahin kaum bekannten Francis Ford Coppola aus, der sich für das Projekt nicht zuletzt deshalb empfahl, weil er italienische Vorfahren hatte und Sinn für das spezielle Kolorit des Films versprach.

Im Laufe der Produktionsvorbereitungen erwies sich Coppola allerdings als ein Mann mit Durchsetzungsvermögen und eigenständigem Regiekonzept, der unter anderem eine grundlegende Bearbeitung des Drehbuchs durchsetzte.

Puzo hatte Brando bereits Ende vorgeschlagen, die Rolle des Mafia-Bosses Don Vito Corleone zu spielen, Brando zweifelte zunächst jedoch, ob er einen jährigen Mann überzeugend darstellen könne.

Die Dreharbeiten zu Der Pate , die nach Coppolas Willen in New York und Umgebung stattfanden, begannen im März Da es Coppolas Eigenart war, Anregungen, die seine Darsteller während der Aufnahmen vorbrachten, sehr bereitwillig aufzugreifen, gestaltete sich die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Brando und Coppola vertrauensvoll und ergiebig.

Der Regisseur und sein Hauptdarsteller stimmten auch darin überein, dass Der Pate nicht in erster Linie ein Mafiafilm sei, sondern vom amerikanischen Kapitalismus handele, der das organisierte Verbrechen zulasse, weil er selbst Nutzen daraus ziehe.

Brando und Coppola verstanden, dass wirklich machtvolle Menschen nicht laut zu werden brauchen, und Brando spielte den Don mit hoher, feiner, asthmatischer Stimme.

Das Problem, den jährigen Brando für die Kamera um zwanzig Jahre altern zu lassen, half der Maskenbildner Dick Smith zu beheben, der für den Film Little Big Man kurz zuvor den jährigen Dustin Hoffman als jährigen Greis geschminkt hatte.

Brandos Vertrag mit der Paramount sah neben Diese Entscheidung erwies sich später als unglücklich, denn nach der Premiere des Films am März war die Resonanz von Publikum und Kritik überwältigend, und allein innerhalb der ersten 26 Tage spielte Der Pate , dessen Produktion 6,2 Millionen Dollar gekostet hatte, 26 Millionen Dollar ein.

Den Oscar , den er am Stattdessen erklärte die Ureinwohnerin und Schauspielerin Sacheen Littlefeather , die er als Sprecherin zur Oscar-Verleihung entsandt hatte, Brando wolle mit dieser Geste auf die unterdrückten Bürgerrechte der Indianer und besonders auf die Protestaktionen aufmerksam machen, die seit Ende Februar in Wounded Knee stattfanden.

Im Laufe des Jahres entwickelten Luigi Luraschi, Chef der Paramount in Rom, und der jährige Regisseur Bernardo Bertolucci das Konzept für den italienisch-französischen Film, der später unter dem Titel Der letzte Tango in Paris berühmt wurde.

Das Drehbuch war Marlon Brando auf den Leib geschrieben, Brando unterzeichnete den Vertrag jedoch erst im November nach Verhandlungen mit Alberto Grimaldi, der den Film koproduzieren wollte.

Grimaldi erhob seit der Produktion des Films Queimada nämlich hohe Schadensersatzforderungen gegen Brando, die er anbot fallen zu lassen, wenn Brando die Rolle übernähme.

Der letzte Tango in Paris erzählt die Geschichte eines von Weltschmerz erfüllten, desillusionierten und verzweifelt einsamen Mannes, der nach dem Tode seiner Frau besessen ist von einer schönen Studentin Maria Schneider , mit der er in einer leeren Wohnung anonymen Sex hat, bei dem er sie dominiert und unterwirft.

Obwohl Der letzte Tango in Paris später als Meisterwerk des erotischen Films gepriesen wurde, ging es Bertolucci nicht um Erotik, sondern darum, einen Mann in sexueller Obsession, in Isolation, Trauer, Schmerz und Verzweiflung zu zeigen.

Die zehnwöchigen Dreharbeiten fanden in Paris statt und begannen im Februar Bertolucci benutzte das Skript nur als groben Leitfaden, der Brando in die richtige Stimmung versetzen sollte, um im Sinne des Method Acting aus seinem eigenen emotionalen Reservoir zu schöpfen.

Bertolucci gab Brando breiten Raum zur Improvisation — ganze Szenen des Films sind improvisiert —, in der auf geradezu klinische Weise die Seelenlage des Protagonisten ausgelotet wird.

Wie in den besten seiner früheren Filme verlieh Brando dem Charakter des Paul eine extreme Vielschichtigkeit und eine Zerrissenheit, unter der ein tiefes existentielles Dilemma erkennbar wurde.

Paul benutzte Sex als Waffe, um seiner unterschwellig brodelnden Wut Luft zu machen und um Rache zu üben an sozialen Konventionen; daneben zeigte er jedoch Momente von Zartheit und Schmerz, die mit seinem Frauenhass in einem beunruhigenden Kontrast standen.

Der letzte Tango in Paris war ein sehr intimer Film, in dem Brando mehr von seiner Persönlichkeit preisgab als in irgendeinem anderen Film.

Nach der Uraufführung, die am Oktober auf dem New York Film Festival stattfand, wurde der Film von der Kritik enthusiastisch gefeiert.

Veranlasst durch seine sexuelle Explizitheit entstand jedoch eine öffentliche Kontroverse, mit der die Produzenten nicht gerechnet hatten. Als der Film daraufhin erst Anfang in die Kinos kam, waren die Erwartungen des Publikums stark angeheizt.

Die Meinungen gingen dann weit auseinander; viele Zuschauer und Kritiker fanden den Film pornografisch; andere, die ihn mit echten Pornos verglichen, fanden ihn langweilig.

Besonders scharf wurde Der letzte Tango in Paris von feministischen Kritikern verurteilt. Den Produktionskosten von 1,4 Millionen Dollar standen jedoch Einspielergebnisse in Höhe von 45 Millionen Dollar gegenüber; Marlon Brando hat an dem Film mindestens vier Millionen Dollar verdient.

Zwei der namhaftesten amerikanischen Kritikervereinigungen — die National Society of Film Critics und der New York Film Critics Circle — zeichneten seine schauspielerische Leistung mit ihrem Hauptpreis aus.

Nach dem ungeheuren Erfolg von Der Pate und Der letzte Tango in Paris hätte Marlon Brando eigentlich jede Rolle auswählen können, die ihn künstlerisch interessiert hätte.

Ein erheblicher Teil dieser Einnahmen floss in die Kassen der Sachverständigen, die Brando bei der Projektplanung auf Tetiaroa siehe weiter unten berieten.

Der erste Film in dieser Reihe war der von Arthur Penn inszenierte Western Duell am Missouri , in dem Brando neben Jack Nicholson einen brutalen Kopfgeldjäger spielen sollte.

Während der Dreharbeiten, die im Sommer in Montana stattfanden, erwies es sich als Problem, dass das Drehbuch noch voller Unstimmigkeiten war.

Für seine Mitwirkung hatte Brando neben einer Gewinnbeteiligung eine Festgage von 1,25 Millionen Dollar vereinbart — ein damals ungewöhnlich hoher Betrag.

Duell am Missouri , dessen Uraufführung im Mai stattfand, wurde ein künstlerischer und kommerzieller Misserfolg, gilt jedoch als derjenige Film, in dem Brando zum letzten Mal einen Rest von Originalität und Brillanz gezeigt hat.

Im Jahre bereitete Francis Ford Coppola die Verfilmung von Joseph Conrads Roman Herz der Finsternis vor, der mit einem authentischen Bericht aus dem Vietnamkrieg verarbeitet werden sollte, den der US-Offizier Robert B.

Rheault geschrieben hatte. Coppola war sowohl Produzent als auch Regisseur und wollte mit Apocalypse Now sein Meisterwerk schaffen. Um aus dem Stoff einen Antikriegsfilm zu erschaffen, mussten die Vorlagen umgearbeitet und der Akzent von Rheault im Film: Kilgore, dargestellt von Robert Duvall auf Kurtz verlagert werden: der Figur, die Coppola mit Marlon Brando besetzen wollte.

Kurtz war ein Colonel der US-Streitkräfte, der, von Perfektionismus und absolutem Handlungswillen getrieben, am hilflosen und unkoordinierten Militäreinsatz der US-Armee zerbricht.

Nach langem Zögern erklärte Brando sich im Februar bereit, die Rolle für eine Gage von 3,5 Millionen Dollar zu übernehmen.

Als die Dreharbeiten, die im März auf den Philippinen begonnen hatten, sich unerwartet in die Länge zogen, geriet Coppola in Finanzierungsschwierigkeiten und verhandelte mit Brando neu.

Der gab sich mit einer Festgage von einer Million Dollar zufrieden, sollte nun jedoch eine Gewinnbeteiligung erhalten.

Als Brando, der bis dahin am Set nicht gebraucht worden war, im Oktober auf den Philippinen eintraf, war Coppola konsterniert über dessen körperliche Erscheinung.

Während Brando seine Korpulenz vor der Kamera gern kaschieren wollte, schlug Coppola dann vor, sie im Gegenteil für die Charakterisierung der Figur zu nutzen und Kurtz als Sybariten zu porträtieren.

Während Brando sich wünschte, Kurtz als einen Soldaten zu spielen, der sich vom Krieg abwendet, nachdem er seine persönliche Schuld daran eingesehen hat, wollte Coppola absolut keinen Film zum Thema Kriegsschuld drehen; ihm schwebte stattdessen vor, Kurtz als heruntergekommenen und wahnsinnig gewordenen, ungeschlachten Dschungel-Einsiedler zu charakterisieren.

Die Arbeit mit Brando war im Oktober abgeschlossen, die weiteren Aufnahmen zogen sich jedoch noch bis in den Mai hin.

Nach einer ebenso langwierigen Postproduktion lag im Mai ein Workprint vor, der auf den Internationalen Filmfestspielen von Cannes gezeigt werden konnte und dort — gemeinsam mit Volker Schlöndorffs Die Blechtrommel — die Goldene Palme gewann.

Im August kam Apocalypse Now auch in den USA in die Kinos, wobei die Kritik über Brandos Darstellung meist wenig Worte verlor.

Seine hohen Drehkosten von fast 27 Millionen Dollar ohne Postproduktion spielte der Film jedoch in kurzer Zeit ein. Da Brando glaubte, von Coppola über die Höhe der Einnahmen getäuscht worden zu sein, strengte er eine Klage an, die zu seinen Gunsten entschieden wurde.

Im Dezember unterzeichnete Brando einen Vertrag mit dem Produzenten Alexander Salkind , in dem er sich zur Mitwirkung in den beiden Comic-Verfilmungen Superman und Superman II bereit erklärte.

Die Dreharbeiten beider Filme fanden gleichzeitig statt, und für Brando begann die nur zwölftägige Arbeit im März in den Londoner Shepperton-Studios.

In wallender Robe und feierlich deklamierendem Ton spielte er den Vater des vom Planeten Krypton stammenden Titelhelden dargestellt von Christopher Reeve.

Brando verband mit dem Film keinerlei künstlerische Interessen und hatte seine Zusage nur wegen der Gage gegeben, die 3,7 Millionen Dollar betragen sollte inflationsbereinigt entspräche dies heute ca.

Salkind hatte ihm überdies eine Gewinnbeteiligung zugesagt. Nach dem Kinostart, der im Dezember stattfand, spielte Superman allein in den ersten 31 Tagen 64,4 Millionen Dollar ein.

Die Kritik lobte die Produktion, beanstandete jedoch die hohe Gage, die Brando für seinen nur minütigen Leinwandauftritt erhalten hatte.

Erst gestanden Salkind und Warner Bros. Brando einen Gewinnanteil von geschätzten 10 bis 15 Millionen Dollar zu. Zu sehen waren die in Superman II nicht verwendeten Szenen mit Brando erst in einer erschienenen Videofassung.

Im Frühsommer bot Brando Alex Haley an, eine kleine Rolle in der Fernsehserie Roots — Die nächsten Generationen zu übernehmen.

Der Produzent der Serie schlug daraufhin vor, Brando die kleine Rolle des amerikanischen Nazi-Führers George Lincoln Rockwell zu geben, was Brando gefiel, weil er mit dieser Rolle gegen seinen Typ besetzt wurde.

Die Dreharbeiten für Episode 7, in der Brando mitwirkte, fanden im Dezember statt. Gesendet wurde die Staffel in den USA von Februar an. Im September wurde Brando für seinen kleinen Auftritt mit einem Emmy ausgezeichnet.

Bereits im September hatte Brando seine Mitwirkung in dem MGM-Film Die Formel angekündigt, dessen Produktion sich dann jedoch verzögerte und erst im Dezember begann.

Für eine Gage von drei Millionen Dollar und einer Gewinnbeteiligung spielte Brando darin die Rolle eines Ölbarons, der mit allen Mitteln eine Erfindung zu unterdrücken sucht, durch die der Rohstoff Erdöl überflüssig würde.

An der Seite des Oscar-Trägers George C. Scott und unter der Regie von John G. Avildsen spielte Brando den dicken, alternden Tycoon mit einer Hörhilfe, die er am Set tatsächlich dazu benutzte, um sich seinen Text einsagen zu lassen.

Brando hat nie gern Dialoge einstudiert, und Die Formel war der erste Film seit mindestens zehn Jahren, in dem er keine Spickzettel verwendete.

Nach dem Kinostart im Dezember fand der Film beim Publikum wenig Anklang, auch die Kritik fand ihn düster, verwirrend und langweilig. In den Jahren von bis hat Brando mehrere Filmrollen trotz beträchtlicher Gagenangebote abgelehnt; unter anderem hatte er Pablo Picasso , Al Capone und Karl Marx darstellen sollen.

Gemeinsam mit dem Regisseur Donald Cammell schmiedete Brando Pläne für einen in Polynesien angesiedelten Abenteuerfilm Fan Tan , von dem er sich jedoch zurückzog, bevor das Projekt umgesetzt werden konnte.

In derselben Zeit erteilte er — zum einzigen Mal in seiner Karriere — Schauspielunterricht; sein Schüler war der Pop-Sänger Michael Jackson , der Brando sehr bewunderte und ihm eine kleine Rolle in seinem Musikvideo You Rock My World gab.

Anfang unterzeichnete Brando nach achtjähriger Drehpause erstmals wieder einen Filmvertrag. Die Dreharbeiten, die in London stattfanden, wurden von Euzhan Palcy geleitet, die als erste farbige Regisseurin Hollywoods bekannt wurde.

Da für den engagierten Film nur wenig Geld zur Verfügung stand, war Brando bereit, für eine Gage von nur 4.

September heraus und brachte Marlon Brando zum letzten Mal in seiner Karriere einen Preis auf dem Internationalen Filmfestival Tokio und eine Oscar-Nominierung ein.

Ende August unterzeichnete Brando bei der TriStar für eine Rolle in Andrew Bergmans Filmlustspiel Freshman. Als sein Sohn Christian wegen Mordes vor Gericht stand und seine Tochter Cheyenne schwer erkrankte, benötigte Brando für Rechtsanwälte, Privatdetektive, Bodyguards, Flugtickets und Ärzte erneut viel Geld.

Als Alexander und Ilya Salkind ihm im November einen Cameo-Auftritt in dem spanisch-britisch-amerikanischen Abenteuerfilm Christopher Columbus — Der Entdecker anboten, nahm er bereitwillig an.

Die Dreharbeiten mit Brando fanden im Januar in Madrid statt. Regie führte John Glen. Im Februar unterzeichnete Brando Verträge mit New Line und mit Coppolas American Zoetrope für eine Rolle in Jeremy Levens Liebeskomödie Don Juan DeMarco.

Neben Johnny Depp und Faye Dunaway sollte er darin einen alternden Psychiater spielen, dessen letzter Patient ein junger Mann ist, der sich für den berühmten Verführer Don Juan hält.

Weniger für Brando war der Film eher ein Vehikel für Depp, der für seine Darstellung mit dem London Critics Circle Film Award ausgezeichnet wurde.

Moreau mit, einer Adaption des gleichnamigen Romans von H. Neben David Thewlis und Val Kilmer spielte Brando in diesem Science-Fiction-Film einen Wissenschaftler, dessen Versuche, menschliche DNA mit tierischer zu verbinden, unbeherrschbare Bestien hervorbringen.

Während der Dreharbeiten, die unter der Regie von John Frankenheimer in Australien stattfanden und im September begannen, war Brandos Arbeit von der Trauer um seine Tochter Cheyenne überschattet, die sich im Frühjahr umgebracht hatte.

Die Kritiken für den Film, der im August herauskam, waren vernichtend. Bereits seit den er Jahren hatte Brando immer wieder Pläne für die Produktion eines sozialkritischen Indianerfilms geschmiedet, die jedoch stets gescheitert waren; der Film The Brave stellt die späte Verwirklichung dieses Planes dar.

Die Dreharbeiten fanden im September in Los Angeles und in Ridgecrest , Kalifornien statt, und Depp war seit Bertolucci der erste Regisseur, mit dem sich für Brando eine harmonische und vertrauensvolle Zusammenarbeit ergab.

The Brave wurde am Mai auf dem Filmfestival Cannes uraufgeführt und für die Goldene Palme nominiert.

Die Kritiker — vor allem die amerikanischen — lehnten den Film jedoch ab, was Depp veranlasste, einer Vermarktung in den USA nicht zuzustimmen.

Dem amerikanischen Publikum ist The Brave bis heute nur als Importvideo zugänglich. Free Money deutsche Bedeutung des Titels: Kostenloses Geld war eine schwarze Filmkomödie über einen skrupellosen Gefängnisdirektor Brando , der zwei Taugenichtse in eine Ehe mit seinen beiden Töchtern zwingt und so unter Druck setzt, dass sie, um sich Geld für die Flucht zu beschaffen, einen Zug ausrauben.

Obwohl neben Brando so hochbegabte Darsteller wie Charlie Sheen , Mira Sorvino und Donald Sutherland mitwirkten, gilt Free Money als einer seiner schwächsten Filme.

Der am 3. Dezember in Singapur uraufgeführte Streifen kam in den USA nie in die Kinos. Seine letzte Filmrolle übernahm Brando im Jahre Regisseur des Films war Frank Oz , der in den er Jahren als Mitschöpfer der Muppet Show bekannt geworden war.

In weiteren Rollen traten Edward Norton und Angela Bassett auf. Im Frühjahr stand Brando mit dem tunesischen Regisseur Ridha Behi in Verhandlung.

Behi wollte einen Spielfilm mit dem Titel Brando and Brando inszenieren, in dem es um einen jungen Tunesier gehen sollte, der seinem amerikanischen Traum — verkörpert von Marlon Brando — nachjagt.

Brando sollte in diesem Film sich selbst spielen. Da Brando bald jedoch nicht mehr zur Verfügung stand, beschloss Behi, das Skript umzuschreiben und für einen halb dokumentarischen Film zu verwenden, der den Titel Citizen Brando tragen sollte.

Der Film sollte uraufgeführt werden, [68] dies wurde jedoch auf verschoben. Marlon Brando, der bereits seit längerer Zeit an Lungenfibrose gelitten hatte, starb am 1.

Juli im Alter von 80 Jahren im UCLA Medical Center , einem Krankenhaus in Los Angeles, an Lungenversagen. Im Kreise der engsten Angehörigen wurde er vier Tage darauf an unbekannter Stelle in Los Angeles eingeäschert.

Unter Aufsicht von Tarita Tumi Teriipaia, Maria Christina Ruiz, deren Schwester Angela, und Brandos Kindern Miko, Teihotu und Tuki wurde die Hälfte von Brandos Asche im Death Valley im Wind verstreut.

Die andere Hälfte nahm Tarita mit und verstreute sie auf Tetiaroa in einer Lagune. Marlon Brando galt als sexuell sehr aktiv und hatte zahllose kurze und langjährige Affären mit Frauen darunter z.

Marilyn Monroe , Marlene Dietrich , Joanne Woodward , Pier Angeli , France Nuyen , Ursula Andress , Katy Jurado und nach eigener Auskunft auch mit Männern.

Dauerhaftere Beziehungen unterhielt Brando u. Am Oktober heiratete er die Schauspielerin Anna Kashfi , die jedoch bereits ein Jahr später die Scheidung einreichte.

Um das Sorgerecht für den im Mai geborenen Sohn Christian lieferten Brando und Kashfi sich einen bis andauernden Rechtsstreit. Während der Ehe wurden zwei Kinder Sergio, genannt Miko ; Rebecca geboren, deren Vaterschaft jedoch strittig ist.

Über Jahrzehnte hinweg verbanden Brando enge Freundschaften mit den Maskenbildnern Phil und Marie Rhodes, dem Filmproduzenten George Englund und den Schauspielern Wally Cox und Christian Marquand.

Dessen Schönheit hatte er Ende während der Dreharbeiten zu Meuterei auf der Bounty entdeckt. Viel Zeit widmete Brando auf Tetiaroa auch seinem Hobby, dem Amateurfunk.

Das für Marlon Brando schlimmste Ereignis war der Totschlag, den sein Sohn Christian am Freund seiner schwangeren Tochter Cheyenne Christians Halbschwester verübte.

Mai Cheyenne, bei der kurze Zeit später Schizophrenie festgestellt wurde, erhängte sich Januar an einer Lungenentzündung.

Marlon Brandos politisches Engagement galt zunächst der amerikanischen Bürgerrechtsbewegung. Wiederholt gab er öffentlich bekannt, er werde sich aus dem Filmgeschäft zurückziehen, um sich ganz dieser politischen Arbeit zu widmen.

Im Sommer organisierte er gemeinsam mit einigen anderen Schauspielerkollegen — darunter Paul Newman und Burt Lancaster — die Arbeit der Bürgerrechtsaktivisten, die Martin Luther King und die von ihm geführte Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Hollywood unterstützen sollten.

Sein Freund Harry Belafonte war ein enger Vertrauter von King. Brando setzte seine Prominenz ein, um Spendengelder zu sammeln, und warb auf Demonstrationen für die Ziele der Bürgerrechtsbewegung.

Hollywood galt unter Liberalen als Hochburg des Rassismus, Brando und seine Mitstreiter forderten eine umfassende Reformierung des Fernseh- und Filmgeschäfts mit dem Ziel, Schwarzen und Angehörigen anderer Minderheiten in Hollywood gleichberechtigte Arbeits- und Selbstdarstellungsmöglichkeiten zu verschaffen.

Anfang nahm Brando auch Kontakt zur Black Panther Party auf, deren Programm und deren Militanz ihn zunächst faszinierten.

Greg Halálosabb Iramban 9 Robbins) leidet an seinem Alter, gespielt von Gamze Senol, TV Marlon Brando Young und Co bieten euch aber Marlon Brando Young genannten Mglichkeiten. - Sicher einkaufen

Auch lag ihm viel daran, durch Tony Marschall klassische Rolle Abstand von seinem Low-life - und Hooligan -Image und mehr intellektuelle Respektabilität zu gewinnen.
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Marlon Brando Young A Young Marlon Brando Brando was born on April 3, in Omaha, Nebraska. The youngest of three children, his father, Marlon Brando Sr., worked in chemical sales. Nick Name: Bud, Mr MumblesBirthday: April 3, Nationality: AmericanFamous: Bisexual School DropoutsDied At Age: 80Sun Sign: AriesAlso Known As: Marlon Br. Marlon Brando Jr. (April 3, – July 1, ) was an American actor and film director with a career spanning 60 years, during which he won the Academy Award for Best Actor twice. He is regarded as arguably the greatest and most influential actor in 20th Century film. 19 Reasons Young Marlon Brando Will Ruin You For The Rest Of The Day. #ThrowbackThursday, Brando-smoulder style. by Anne Helen Petersen. BuzzFeed News Features Writer 1. That stare. Marlon Brando finished all his scenes for both two Superman films early into production, successfully sued the Salkinds, producers of the film, for $50 million over grossed profits gained from the first film. In response, the Salkinds cut Brando from the film, replacing his scenes with actress Susannah York. Bloomington, Indiana: iUniverse. InJillette was granted a patent for a physical therapy spa, designed specifically for women, which uses nozzles and hoses to draw water into and out of a tub. Oxford, UK: Berg Publishers. They didn't like the way I Dominik Landertinger shooting it. Marlon brando young Resümees. Um sich davon zu überzeugen, dass die Wirkung von Marlon brando young tatsächlich effektiv ist, empfiehlt es sich einen Blick auf Beiträge aus Foren und Bewertungen von Fremden zu gibt leider sehr wenige klinische Tests diesbezüglich, denn normalerweise werden jene nur mit rezeptpflichtigen Mitteln gemacht. Es war eine der kühnen und erfolgreichen Entscheidungen der Filmgeschichte. Mit blonder Perücke und schwarzem T-Shirt spielte er den Entführer einer jungen Erbin, der im letzten Augenblick moralisch Sky Receiver Mit Dem Internet Verbinden wird und das Opfer vor seinen Komplizen dargestellt von Richard Boone und Rita Moreno rettet. Noch folgenreicher waren Konflikte, die sich auch zwischen Brando und Chaplin ergaben. Textbausteine des Kurzportraits www. Marlon Brando, Jr. (* 3. April in Omaha, Nebraska; † 1. Juli in Los Angeles, (Leonard Cohen, ), China Girl (Iggy Pop, und David Bowie, ), Pocahontas (Neil Young, ), We Didn't Start the Fire (Billy Joel, ),​. Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Marlon Brando Young sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen. A young Marlon Brando in A Streetcar Named Desire. Discover the magic of the internet at Imgur, a community powered entertainment destination. Lift your. - Elaine Anderson hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest.


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